Level 1 Korean Grammar

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1

Hello. Thank you. / 안녕하세요. 감사합니다.

2

Yes. No. What? / 네. 아니요. 네?

3

Good-bye. See you. / 안녕히 가세요. 안녕히 계세요. 안녕.

4

I’m sorry. Excuse me. / 죄송합니다. 저기요.

5

It’s me. What is it? / 저예요. 뭐예요?

6

What is this? This is ... / 이거 뭐예요? 이거...

7

This, That, It / 이, 그, 저

8

It’s NOT me. / 아니에요.

9

Particles for Topic and Subject / 은, 는, 이, 가

10

have, don’t have, there is, there isn’t / 있어요, 없어요

11

Please give me. / 주세요.

12

It’s delicious. Thank you for the food. / 맛있어요. 잘 먹겠습니다. 잘 먹었습니다.

13

I want to … / -고 싶어요

14

What do you want to do? / 뭐 하고 싶어요?

15

Sino-Korean Numbers / 일, 이, 삼, 사

16

Basic Present Tense / -아요, -어요, -여요

17

Past Tense / -았/었/였어요 (했어요)

18

Particles for Location / 에, 에서

19

When / 언제

20

Native Korean numbers / 하나, 둘, 셋, 넷

21

Negative Sentences / 안, -지 않다

22

하다 verbs

23

Who? / 누구?

24

Why? How? / 왜? 어떻게?

25

From A To B, From C Until D / -에서/부터 -까지

26

Test Your Korean – Level 1 Dialogue in 100% Korean

have, don’t have, there is, there isn’t / 있어요, 없어요

In this lesson, you can learn how to say that you have something or that something exists in Korean. The expression 있어요 [i-sseo-yo] can mean both “have” and “exist” and the opposite expression, 없어요 [eop-seo-yo] can mean both “don’t have” and “don’t exist.” Listen to the lesson to find out how to use them in real-life context.

In this lesson, we are going to have a look at the expressions “있어요” [i-sseo-yo] and ”없어요” [eop-sseo-yo]. When you want to talk about what people HAVE/DON’T HAVE, and also about things that EXIST/DON’T EXIST, you can use these expressions. 

있어요 [i-sseo-yo] comes from 있다 [it-da], and it basically expresses that something exists. 

If you are talking about someone or something existing in a specific place, it means “to be” 
Ex) I am here. / It’s over there. / I am at home now. 

If you are talking about something (or someone in some cases) in your possession, it means “to have”
Ex) I have a sister. / I have eleven dogs. / Do you have a private airplane?

Sometimes it means both. For example, the sentence “I have a sister.” can also be replaced by the sentence “There is a sister (in my family).” in Korean.

And 없어요 [eop-sseo-yo] is the opposite, and it comes from the verb 없다 [eop-da]. Even though there IS a way to say the same thing, using 있어요 and make it into a negative sentence, since there is this independent verb in Korean (없어요) for expressing non-existence, it’s more convenient to use 없어요 rather than saying 있지 않아요 or 안 있어요 (which will be covered in a future lesson).

So, in conclusion,

있어요 ←→  없어요
[i-sseo-yo]   [eop-sseo-yo] 

And when you use 있어요/없어요 with other noun, you have to put what you have or what you don’t have IN FRONT OF “있어요” [i-sseo-yo] or ”없어요” [eop-sseo-yo].

Let’s look at more examples!


있어요 [i-sseo-yo]

And in our examples, let’s use the following words:

물 [mul] = water / 친구 [chin-gu] = friend / 시간 [si-gan] = time 


You simply add 있어요 at the end of the noun that you are referring to. 

1. 물 있어요. [mul i-sseo-yo] = There is water. / Water exists. / I have water. / They have water.

2. 물 있어요? [mul i-sseo-yo?] = Is there water? / Do you have water? / Do they have water?

3. 친구 있어요. [chin-gu i-sseo-yo] = I have friends. / I have a friend. / There are friends. 

4. 친구 있어요? [chin-gu i-sseo-yo?] = Do you have friends? / Do they have friends? 

5. 시간 있어요. [si-gan i-sseo-yo] = There is time. / I have time. / They have time.

6. 시간 있어요? [si-gan i-sseo-yo?] = Is there time? / Do you have time? / Do they have time?


And just by replacing 있어요 [i-sseo-yo] with 없어요 [eops-eo-yo] you get sentences in the opposite meanings.


없어요 [eop-sseo-yo]

1. 시간 없어요. [si-gan eop-sseo-yo] = There is no time. / I don’t have time. / We don’t have time.

2. 친구 없어요. [chin-gu eop-sseo-yo] = I don’t have friends. 


Review 

Do you remember the usages of -은/는 [-eun/neun], the topic marking particles and -이/가 [-i/ga], the subject marking particles? 


-은 and -는 mark the topic of a sentence, and at the same time emphasize the contrast between the topic of the sentence and the other things. 

If you say “시간은 있어요.” [si-gan-eun i-sseo-yo], people might think that you have time but nothing besides time meaning you have no other resources OR you have time and you don’t want to spend any of that time with them. 

So if you just say 시간 없어요. [si-gan eop-sseo-yo] that means “I don’t have time.” in the most neutral sense. If you want to say,  “I have other things but just TIME is not what I have.” you can say that simply by add -은 [-eun] or -는 [-neun] at the end of 시간 [si-gan] (but in this case, 시간 ends with a last consonant so -은 is used), that becomes 시간은 없어요. 

And if someone asks you “What is it that you don’t have? What are you saying that you don’t have?” you can answer that question by saying “TIME. Time is what I don’t have.” and that can be expressed through 시간이 없어요. 


Fixed expressions

있어요 and 없어요 can be used to form many interesting and frequently used expressions in Korean. 

재미 [ jae-mi] = fun 
재미 + 있어요 = 재미있어요 literally means “fun exists” but it means “to be interesting”

**Notice how the two words are even written without any space in between. That’s because it has already become an expression used daily.


Example:

TalkToMeInKorean 재미있어요! [ jae-mi-i-sseo-yo] = TalkToMeInKorean is fun! / TalkToMeInKorean is interesting!

In this lesson, you can learn how to say that you have something or that something exists in Korean. The expression 있어요 [i-sseo-yo] can mean both “have” and “exist” and the opposite expression, 없어요 [eop-seo-yo] can mean both “don’t have” and “don’t exist.” Listen to the lesson to find out how to use them in real-life context.
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