Level 1 Korean Grammar

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1

Hello. Thank you. / 안녕하세요. 감사합니다.

2

Yes. No. What? / 네. 아니요. 네?

3

Good-bye. See you. / 안녕히 가세요. 안녕히 계세요. 안녕.

4

I’m sorry. Excuse me. / 죄송합니다. 저기요.

5

It’s me. What is it? / 저예요. 뭐예요?

6

What is this? This is ... / 이거 뭐예요? 이거...

7

This, That, It / 이, 그, 저

8

It’s NOT me. / 아니에요.

9

Particles for Topic and Subject / 은, 는, 이, 가

10

have, don’t have, there is, there isn’t / 있어요, 없어요

11

Please give me. / 주세요.

12

It’s delicious. Thank you for the food. / 맛있어요. 잘 먹겠습니다. 잘 먹었습니다.

13

I want to … / -고 싶어요

14

What do you want to do? / 뭐 하고 싶어요?

15

Sino-Korean Numbers / 일, 이, 삼, 사

16

Basic Present Tense / -아요, -어요, -여요

17

Past Tense / -았/었/였어요 (했어요)

18

Particles for Location / 에, 에서

19

When / 언제

20

Native Korean numbers / 하나, 둘, 셋, 넷

21

Negative Sentences / 안, -지 않다

22

하다 verbs

23

Who? / 누구?

24

Why? How? / 왜? 어떻게?

25

From A To B, From C Until D / -에서/부터 -까지

26

Test Your Korean – Level 1 Dialogue in 100% Korean

Basic Present Tense / -아요, -어요, -여요

In this TTMIK lesson, we are looking at how to change a verb in its dictionary form into the basic present tense. In Korean, when you look up a verb in a dictionary, everything ends in the letter 다 [da], and you have to get rid of that in order to conjugate the verb. And after that, you add 아요, 어요, or 여요.

In this lesson, we are going to learn how to conjugate Korean verbs. When you look up verbs in a Korean dictionary, they are in this form: 

가다 [ga-da] = to go
먹다 [meok-da] = to eat
자다 [ ja-da] = to sleep
때리다 [ttae-ri-da] = to hit
웃다 [ut-da] = to laugh
* Note that all the verbs end with -다 [-da] at the end.


You need to change these verbs into more realistic, more natural and more flexible forms.

And when you change the forms of these verbs to express the present tense, the future tense, the past tense, and etc., the first thing you need to do is to drop the last letter, 다 [da], and then you have the verb stem. You almost never need the “-다”.


Verb stems of the verbs above:

가 [ga]
먹 [meok]
자 [ ja]
때리 [ttae-ri]
웃 [ut] 

And to these, you add the appropriate verb endings to make them complete. And in this lesson we are going to learn how to change these dictionary forms of the verbs into the present tense.


The Present Tense

In order to conjugate a verb into the present tense, you take the verb stem, and add one of these endings:

-아요 [-a-yo]

-어요 [-eo-yo]

-여요 [-yeo-yo]

* Note that we are introducing the endings in the polite language. Do not worry about learning to use different politeness levels. Once you have learned how to say everything in polite language, changing it to other politeness levels is very easy to do. 


So, which one of these three endings goes after which verb stem? It’s quite simple.


If the verb stem’s last vowel is ㅏ[a] or ㅗ [o], it is followed by 아요 [a-yo].

If the last vowel is NOT ㅏ[a] or ㅗ [o], it is followed by 어요 [eo-yo].

And only one verb stem, which is 하 [ha], is followed by 여요 [yeo-yo].


Let’s look at some examples.

1) 

가다 [ga-da] = to go 

The verb stem is 가 [ga] and its last vowel is ㅏ [a] so you add 아요 [a-yo]. So it first becomes 가 + 아요, and then more naturally, it becomes 가요 [ga-yo] for ease of pronunciation. 

가다 [ga-da] = to go (dictionary form)
--> 가요 [ga-yo] = I go. You go. He goes. She goes. They go. (present tense)


2) 

먹다 [meok-da] = to eat

The verb stem is 먹 [meok] and its level vowel is ㅓ [eo] so it is NOT ㅏ or ㅗ, so you add 어요 [eo-yo]. So it becomes, 먹 + 어요 [meo-geo-yo]

먹다 [meok-da] = to eat (dictionary form)
먹어요 [meo-geo-yo] = I eat. You eat., and etc. (present tense)
* Note that there is a liaison in the pronunciation at 먹 + 어 [meok + eo] which sounds like 머거 [meo-geo]. 


3) 

보다 [bo-da] = to see, to watch, to look

Verb stem? 보 [bo] 

What is it followed by? 아요 [a-yo] 

보 + 아요 ---> Over time, it started being pronounced and written as 봐요 [bwa-yo]. (Say 보 + 아 + 요 three times as fast.)

보다 [bo-da] = to see, to watch, to look
봐요 [bwa-yo] = I see. I look. I watch. You look. and etc. (present tense)


4)

보이다 [bo-i-da] = to be seen, to be visible

Verb stem? 보이 [bo-i]

What is it followed by? 어요 [eo-yo]

보이 + 어요 ---> 보여요 [bo-yeo-yo]
보이다 [bo-i-da] = to be seen, to be visible
보여요 [bo-yeo-yo] = It’s visible. I see it.


5)

하다 [ha-da] = to do

Verb stem? 하 [ha]

What is it followed by? 여요 [yeo-yo]

하 + 여요 ---> 하여요 [ha-yeo-yo]

Over time, 하여요 became 해요 [hae-yo].

* Here, please just remember that this verb, 하다 is very versatile. You can add a noun in front of it and you can form new verbs. 


studying = 공부 to study = 공부하다
cleaning (the room) = 청소 to clean = 청소하다
cooking = 요리 to cook = 요리하다


We will introduce how to do this in lesson number 23. But for now, just remember that 하다 becomes 해요 in the present tense and it means “I do.” “You do.” “He does.” or “They do.”

Are there any irregularities or exceptions? Sadly, yes, there are. But don’t worry. Even those exceptions are NOT too far away from the regular rules!! And of course, we will introduce them in the nicest and easiest way possible through our future lessons. Thank you once again for studying with us through this lesson!

In this TTMIK lesson, we are looking at how to change a verb in its dictionary form into the basic present tense. In Korean, when you look up a verb in a dictionary, everything ends in the letter 다 [da], and you have to get rid of that in order to conjugate the verb. And after that, you add 아요, 어요, or 여요.
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주식회사 지나인 (사업자 번호 110-81-94935)
서울시 마포구 서교동 394-74번지 3층
Version: TTMIK v1.0.99-production