Level 1 Korean Grammar

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1

Hello. Thank you. / 안녕하세요. 감사합니다.

2

Yes. No. What? / 네. 아니요. 네?

3

Good-bye. See you. / 안녕히 가세요. 안녕히 계세요. 안녕.

4

I’m sorry. Excuse me. / 죄송합니다. 저기요.

5

It’s me. What is it? / 저예요. 뭐예요?

6

What is this? This is ... / 이거 뭐예요? 이거...

7

This, That, It / 이, 그, 저

8

It’s NOT me. / 아니에요.

9

Particles for Topic and Subject / 은, 는, 이, 가

10

have, don’t have, there is, there isn’t / 있어요, 없어요

11

Please give me. / 주세요.

12

It’s delicious. Thank you for the food. / 맛있어요. 잘 먹겠습니다. 잘 먹었습니다.

13

I want to ... / -고 싶어요

14

What do you want to do? / 뭐 하고 싶어요?

15

Sino-Korean Numbers / 일, 이, 삼, 사

16

Basic Present Tense / -아요, -어요, -여요

17

Past Tense / -았/었/였어요 (했어요)

18

Particles for Location / 에, 에서

19

When / 언제

20

Native Korean numbers / 하나, 둘, 셋, 넷

21

Negative Sentences / 안, -지 않다

22

하다 verbs

23

Who? / 누구?

24

Why? How? / 왜? 어떻게?

25

From A To B, From C Until D / -에서/부터 -까지

26

Test Your Korean – Level 1 Dialogue in 100% Korean

Past Tense / -았/었/였어요 (했어요)

In this TTMIK lesson, we are looking at the past tense of the Korean language. By knowing how to change your verbs into the past tense, you will be able to talk about what you did yesterday, who you met last week, and etc. If you already understand how to change verbs into the present tense, using the past tense will be a breeze.

In the previous lesson, we looked at the basic way of conjugating the verbs in the dictionary forminto the present tense form. Do you remember how? 

Verb stems ending with vowels ㅗ [o] or ㅏ [a] are followed by -아요 [-a-yo]. 
Verb stems ending with vowels OTHER THAN ㅗ or ㅏ are followed by -어요 [-eo-yo].
Verb stem 하 is followed by -여요 [-yeo-yo]. 


Now it’s time to learn how to change verbs into the past tense. 

If you understand how to change verbs into the present tense, understanding how to change them into the past tense is just as easy. A similar rule is applied to making past tense sentences, and the endings are: 

-았어요 [-a-sseo-yo]
-었어요 [-eo-sseo-yo]
-였어요 [-yeo-sseo-yo]

You can add those to the verb stems, or you can think of it as just replacing the “요” at the end of present tense sentences with -ㅆ어요 [ss-eo-yo]. 

Verb stems ending with vowels ㅗ [o] or ㅏ [a] are followed by -았어요 [-a-sseo-yo].
Verb stems ending with vowels other than ㅗ or ㅏ are followed by -었어요 [-eo-sseo-yo].
Verb stem 하 is followed by -였어요 [-yeo-sse-yo].

Let’s take a look at some examples.

1.
사다 [sa-da] = to buy
Verb stem = 사 [sa]
* You drop the final -다 [da] from any verb and you get the verb stem. 

Past tense 
= 사 + 았어요 [sa + a-sseo-yo] 
= 샀어요 [sa-sseo-yo]
= I bought / you bought / she bought / he bought / they bought / etc.

2.
오다 [o-da] = to come
Verb stem = 오 [o]

Past tense
= 오 + 았어요 [o + a-sseo-yo]
= 왔어요 [wa-sseo-yo]
= I came / you came / he came / they came / she came / we came / etc. 

3.
적다 [ jeok-da] = to write down 
Verb stem = 적 [ jeok] 

Past tense
= 적 + 었어요 [ jeok + eo-sseo-yo] 
= 적었어요 [ jeo-geo-sseo-yo] 
= I wrote / you wrote / he wrote / she wrote / they wrote / we wrote / etc. 

4.
하다 [ha-da] = to do 
Verb stem = 하 [ha]

Past tense
= 하 + 였어요 [ha + yeo-sseo+yo]
= 했어요 [hae-sseo-yo]
= I did / you did / he did / they did / etc. 


More sample verbs in the present tense and the past tense 

1.
먹다 [meok-da] (Verb stem = 먹 [meok]) = to eat
Present Tense: 먹어요 [meo-geo-yo] 
Past Tense: 먹었어요 [meo-geo-sseo-yo]

2.
잡다 [ jap-da] (Verb stem = 잡 [ jap]) = to catch
Present Tense: 잡아요 [ ja-ba-yo] 
Past Tense: 잡았어요 [ ja-ba-sseo-yo]

3. 
팔다 [pal-da] (Verb stem = 팔 [pal]) = to sell
Present Tense: 팔아요 [pa-ra-yo] 
Past Tense: 팔았어요 [pa-ra-sseo-yo] 

4.
놀다 [nol-da] (Verb stem = 놀 [nol]) = to play, to hang out
Present Tense: 놀아요 [no-ra-yo]
Past Tense: 놀았어요 [no-ra-sseo-yo] 

5. 
쓰다 [sseu-da] (Verb stem = 쓰 [sseu]) = to write, to use
Present Tense: 써요 [sseo-yo] (NOT 쓰어요) 
Past Tense: 썼어요 [sseo-sseo-yo] 

6. 
기다리다 [gi-da-ri-da] (Verb stem = 기다리 [gi-da-ri]) = to wait
Present Tense: 기다려요 [gi-da-ryeo-yo] (NOT 기다리어요)
Past Tense: 기다렸어요 [gi-da-ryeo-sseo-yo] 

7. 
이상하다 [i-sang-ha-da] (Verb stem = 이상하 [i-sang-ha]) = to be strange
Present Tense: 이상해요 [i-sang-hae-yo) (NOT 이상하여요) 
Past Tense: 이상했어요 [i-sang-hae-sseo-yo]

8. 
멋있다 [meo-sit-da] (Verb stem = 멋있 [meo-sit]) = to be cool, to be awesome
Present Tense: 멋있어요 [meo-si-sseo-yo] 
Past Tense: 멋있었어요 [meo-si-sseo-sseo-yo] 

* There are some other things that are more important to learn before the future tense in level 1. So we are going to introduce those things in the rest of the lessons for level 1, and we will introduce the future tense in level 2. Please be patient!

In this TTMIK lesson, we are looking at the past tense of the Korean language. By knowing how to change your verbs into the past tense, you will be able to talk about what you did yesterday, who you met last week, and etc. If you already understand how to change verbs into the present tense, using the past tense will be a breeze.
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주식회사 지나인 (사업자 번호 110-81-94935)
서울시 마포구 서교동 394-74번지 3층
Version: TTMIK v1.2.98-production