Level 1 Korean Grammar

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1

Hello. Thank you. / 안녕하세요. 감사합니다.

2

Yes. No. What? / 네. 아니요. 네?

3

Good-bye. See you. / 안녕히 가세요. 안녕히 계세요. 안녕.

4

I’m sorry. Excuse me. / 죄송합니다. 저기요.

5

It’s me. What is it? / 저예요. 뭐예요?

6

What is this? This is ... / 이거 뭐예요? 이거...

7

This, That, It / 이, 그, 저

8

It’s NOT me. / 아니에요.

9

Particles for Topic and Subject / 은, 는, 이, 가

10

have, don’t have, there is, there isn’t / 있어요, 없어요

11

Please give me. / 주세요.

12

It’s delicious. Thank you for the food. / 맛있어요. 잘 먹겠습니다. 잘 먹었습니다.

13

I want to ... / -고 싶어요

14

What do you want to do? / 뭐 하고 싶어요?

15

Sino-Korean Numbers / 일, 이, 삼, 사

16

Basic Present Tense / -아요, -어요, -여요

17

Past Tense / -았/었/였어요 (했어요)

18

Particles for Location / 에, 에서

19

When / 언제

20

Native Korean numbers / 하나, 둘, 셋, 넷

21

Negative Sentences / 안, -지 않다

22

하다 verbs

23

Who? / 누구?

24

Why? How? / 왜? 어떻게?

25

From A To B, From C Until D / -에서/부터 -까지

26

Test Your Korean – Level 1 Dialogue in 100% Korean

Negative Sentences / 안, -지 않다

In this lesson, we are introducing how to form negative sentences in Korean. In Korean you can either add the word 안[an] before a verb or conjugate the verb into a negative form by using the verb ending -지 않다[ji an-ta].

In this lesson, we are going to have a look at how to make negative sentences in Korean. There are mainly two ways to do this.

1. Adding 안 [an] before a verb
2. Using the negative verb ending, -지 않다 [-ji an-ta]

Method #1 is more simple and more colloquial, and method #2 is relatively formal but not necessarily only for formal situations. If you want to use method #1, and add 안 [an] before a verb, it’s easier than method #2 because you don’t have to worry about the different tenses of your sentences. The word 안 [an] doesn’t change the tense.


Examples using method #1 (adding 안 [an])

가다 [ga-da] = to go

집에 가요. [ jib-e ga-yo] I’m going home. / I go home.

집에 안 가요. [ jib-e an ga-yo] I’m NOT going home. / I DON’T go home.

집에 안 가요? [ jib-e an ga-yo?] You’re NOT going home? / You DON’T go home?


버리다 [beo-ri-da] = to throw away

그거 버렸어요. [geu-geo beo-ryeo-sseo-yo] I threw it away

그거 안 버렸어요. [geu-geo an beo-ryeo-sseo-yo] I DIDN’T throw it away.

그거 아직 안 버렸어요. [geu-geo a-jik an beo-ryeo-sseo-yo] I DIDN’T throw it away yet.


Examples using method #2 (adding -지 않다 [-ji an-ta])

-지 않다 [-ji anta] is the basic form and you need to conjugate it according to the tense, too.


Present tense: -지 않아요 [-ji a-na-yo]

Past tense: -지 않았어요 [-ji a-na-sseo-yo]


가다 [ga-da] = to go

가지 않다 [ga-ji an-ta] = to not go

가지 않아요 [ga-ji a-na-yo] = I DON’T go. / I’m NOT going. 

가지 않았어요 [ga-ji a-na-sseo-yo] = I DIDN’T go.


버리다 [beo-ri-da] = to throw away

버리지 않다 [beo-ri-ji an-ta] = to not throw away

버리지 않아요 [beo-ri-ji a-na-yo] = I DON’T throw it away.

버리지 않았어요 [beo-ri-ji a-na-sseo-yo] I DIDN’T throw it away.


Sample Dialogues

1.

A: 아파요? [a-pa-yo?] = Does it hurt?

B: 안 아파요. [an a-pa-yo] = It doesn’t hurt.

A: 안 아파요? 진짜 안 아파요? [an a-pa-yo? jin-jja an a-pa-yo?] 

    = It doesn’t hurt? It really doesn’t hurt?

B: 안 아파요. [an a-pa-yo] = It doesn’t hurt.


2.

A: 안 먹어요? [an meo-geo-yo?] = You are not going to eat?

B: 안 먹어요! [an meo-geo-yo!] = I’m not eating!

A: 정말 안 먹어요? 맛있어요! [ jeong-mal an meo-geo-yo? ma-si-sseo-yo] 

    = You are really not going to eat? It’s delicious.

B: 안 먹어요. 배 안 고파요. [an meo-geo-yo. bae an go-pa-yo] 

    = I’m not eating. I’m not hungry.


3.

A: 이거 매워요? [i-geo mae-wo-yo?] = Is this spicy?

B: 아니요. 안 매워요. [a-ni-yo. an mae-wo-yo] = No. It’s not spicy.

A: 진짜 안 매워요? [ jin-jja an mae-wo-yo?] = It’s really not spicy?

B: 네. 안 매워요. [ne. an mae-wo-yo] = No, it’s not spicy


* There are two words which don’t follow these rules that we just introduced. This is because they have antonyms that are very frequently used.


있다 [it-da] = to be, to exist, to have 

→ 없다 [eop-da] = to not be, to not exist, to not have


알다 = [al-da] = to know

→ 모르다 [mo-reu-da] = to not know

In this lesson, we are introducing how to form negative sentences in Korean. In Korean you can either add the word 안[an] before a verb or conjugate the verb into a negative form by using the verb ending -지 않다[ji an-ta].
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