Level 1 Korean Grammar

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1

Hello. Thank you. / 안녕하세요. 감사합니다.

2

Yes. No. What? / 네. 아니요. 네?

3

Good-bye. See you. / 안녕히 가세요. 안녕히 계세요. 안녕.

4

I’m sorry. Excuse me. / 죄송합니다. 저기요.

5

It’s me. What is it? / 저예요. 뭐예요?

6

What is this? This is ... / 이거 뭐예요? 이거...

7

This, That, It / 이, 그, 저

8

It’s NOT me. / 아니에요.

9

Particles for Topic and Subject / 은, 는, 이, 가

10

have, don’t have, there is, there isn’t / 있어요, 없어요

11

Please give me. / 주세요.

12

It’s delicious. Thank you for the food. / 맛있어요. 잘 먹겠습니다. 잘 먹었습니다.

13

I want to ... / -고 싶어요

14

What do you want to do? / 뭐 하고 싶어요?

15

Sino-Korean Numbers / 일, 이, 삼, 사

16

Basic Present Tense / -아요, -어요, -여요

17

Past Tense / -았/었/였어요 (했어요)

18

Particles for Location / 에, 에서

19

When / 언제

20

Native Korean numbers / 하나, 둘, 셋, 넷

21

Negative Sentences / 안, -지 않다

22

하다 verbs

23

Who? / 누구?

24

Why? How? / 왜? 어떻게?

25

From A To B, From C Until D / -에서/부터 -까지

26

Test Your Korean – Level 1 Dialogue in 100% Korean

This, That, It / 이, 그, 저

In this lesson, you can learn how to say “this” “that” “it” and “the” in Korean. In English, “this” and “that” can work as both modifiers and pronouns, but you need to use different words in Korean. This is because in Korean “this” as in “this is a book” is composed of two parts, 이 (this) + 거 (thing).

In this lesson, you can learn how to say “this” “that” and “it” in Korean. In English, the words “this” and “that” can be used both on their own (as pronouns) and also to modify other words (as adjectives), but in Korean, the words for “this”, “that” and “it” change their forms depending on whether they are pronouns or adjectives.

Example:
In English you can say “This is my car.” and also “This car is mine.” So the word “this” here can be used as a pronoun and also as a word that modifies “car.” In Korean, however, words for “this” as a modifier and “this” as “this item here” or “this thing here” are strictly distinguished, and the same is true for “that” as well. 


이 [i] = this (near you) (adjective)

이 커피 [i keo-pi] = this coffee
이 컴퓨터 [i keom-pyu-teo] = this computer
이 아이스크림 [i a-i-seu-keu-rim] = this ice-cream
이 호텔 [i ho-tel] = this hotel
이 택시 [i taek-si] = this taxi
이 버스 [i beo-seu] = this bus
이 카메라 [i ka-me-ra] = this camera
이 피자 [i pi-ja] = this pizza


저 [jeo] = that (over there)

* If you know how to say “I” in polite formal Korean, it’s the same thing. It sounds the same. But you don’t have to worry about being confused, because “저” is a modifier which modifies a different word, so it is always followed by a noun. The word for “I”, “저”, is followed by particles, verbs, etc. They are used in completely different contexts.

저 마이크 [jeo ma-i-keu] = that microphone over there
저 테이블 [jeo te-i-beul] = that table over there
저 레스토랑 [jeo rae-seu-to-rang] = that restaurant over there


그 [geu] = the / that (near the other person) 

* “그 [geu]” and “저 [jeo]” are both used for referring to something that is far away from the speaker, but “그” is used when you are talking to the other person and that object is near that other person and far away from you, and “저” is used for referring to something that is far away from both you and the other person.


Since 이, 그, and 저 in Korean can only work as modifiers, when you want to say ‘this’ ‘that’ or ‘it’ as pronouns, you have to add the word 거 [geo] or 것 [geot] after these words.


거 [geo] = 것 [geot] = thing, item, stuff, fact


So... 

이 [i] = this 
이 + 것 = 이것 [i-geot] or 이거 [i-geo] = this thing, this item, this one

그 [geu] = the, that
그 + 것 = 그것 [geu-geot] or 그거 [geu-geo] = the thing, the item, that one, it

저 [ jeo] = the, that, that ... over there
저 + 것 = 저것 [jeo-geot] or 저거 [jeo-geo] = that thing over there

* You must not use either 거 or 것 when you point at a person.
* What if you don’t see that thing, that object or that person in your sight? What if it’s not there? How do you refer to it? It is very simple. Just use the word “그” or “그것”.


You can form various expressions using 이, 그, or 저 along with other words.

Examples:
사람 [sa-ram] means a person.
이 사람 [i sa-ram] = this person, this man here, this lady here, he, she
그 사람 [geu sa-ram] = the person, that person, he, she
저 사람 [jeo sa-ram] = that person over there, he, she

In this lesson, you can learn how to say “this” “that” “it” and “the” in Korean. In English, “this” and “that” can work as both modifiers and pronouns, but you need to use different words in Korean. This is because in Korean “this” as in “this is a book” is composed of two parts, 이 (this) + 거 (thing).
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주식회사 지나인 (사업자 번호 110-81-94935)
서울시 마포구 서교동 394-74번지 3층
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