Level 1 Korean Grammar

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1

Hello. Thank you. / 안녕하세요. 감사합니다.

2

Yes. No. What? / 네. 아니요. 네?

3

Good-bye. See you. / 안녕히 가세요. 안녕히 계세요. 안녕.

4

I’m sorry. Excuse me. / 죄송합니다. 저기요.

5

It’s me. What is it? / 저예요. 뭐예요?

6

What is this? This is ... / 이거 뭐예요? 이거...

7

This, That, It / 이, 그, 저

8

It’s NOT me. / 아니에요.

9

Particles for Topic and Subject / 은, 는, 이, 가

10

have, don’t have, there is, there isn’t / 있어요, 없어요

11

Please give me. / 주세요.

12

It’s delicious. Thank you for the food. / 맛있어요. 잘 먹겠습니다. 잘 먹었습니다.

13

I want to ... / -고 싶어요

14

What do you want to do? / 뭐 하고 싶어요?

15

Sino-Korean Numbers / 일, 이, 삼, 사

16

Basic Present Tense / -아요, -어요, -여요

17

Past Tense / -았/었/였어요 (했어요)

18

Particles for Location / 에, 에서

19

When / 언제

20

Native Korean numbers / 하나, 둘, 셋, 넷

21

Negative Sentences / 안, -지 않다

22

하다 verbs

23

Who? / 누구?

24

Why? How? / 왜? 어떻게?

25

From A To B, From C Until D / -에서/부터 -까지

26

Test Your Korean – Level 1 Dialogue in 100% Korean

Particles for Topic and Subject / 은, 는, 이, 가

This lesson will introduce the topic marking particles and the subject marking particles in the Korean language. The topic marking particles and the subject marking particles play a very important role in Korean so it’s very important that you learn them well. But even some advanced-level speakers of the language can make mistakes regarding these particles, so please don’t worry even if you don’t get them right away. You will eventually be able to use them naturally after some practice.

In this lesson, you are going to learn about the topic marking particles and the subject marking particles in Korean. Most languages don’t have subject marking particles or topic marking particles in their sentences, so the concept might be very new, but once you get used to them, knowing how to use these particles will come very much in handy. 


The basic rules

If a noun which you want to talk about is the topic of the sentence, you use topic marking particles. If a word that you want to talk about is the subject of the verb of the sentence, you use subject marking particles. It sounds very simple, but when it comes to really using them, it’s a little more complicated.


Topic marking particles

-은 [-eun] / -는 [-neun] 

The main role of topic marking particles is letting the other people know what you are talking about or going to talk about, and topic marking particles are attached after nouns. 


Words ending with a last consonant + -은 
Words ending with a vowel + -는


Examples
이 책[i chaek] = this book
이 책[i chaek] + 은 [eun] = 이 책은[i chae-geun]

이 차[i cha] = this car
이 차[i cha] + 는 [neun] = 이 차는[i cha-neun]

가방 [ga-bang] = bag
가방 [ga-bang] + 은 [eun] = 가방은 [ga-bang-eun]

저 [jeo] = I 
저 [jeo] + 는 [neun] = 저는 [jeo-neun]

If you just say “이 책”, people won’t know what about the book you are going to talk about - whether you are going to use it as the subject of the sentence or use it as the object of the sentence, nobody would know. That’s why in Korean there is this device called topic marking particles and subject marking particles, so even if you don’t finish your Korean sentence, people will know what your intentions are with that noun.  


The topic of the sentence, marked by -은 [-eun] or -는 [-neun] is usually (but not always) the same as the subject of the sentence.

저 [ jeo] = I 
저 + 는 [neun] = 저는 [jeo-neun] = as for me / (I am talking) me 
저는 학생이에요. [jeo-neun hak-saeng-i-e-yo] = As for me, I am a student. / I am a student. 


Here, the word 저 (I) is both the topic of the sentence (talking about “I” here) and the subject of the sentence (“I” is the subject, and “am” is the verb.”)


But the uniqueness of the Korean language can be found in the following sample sentence.

내일은 저는 일해요. [nae-i-reun jeo-neun il-hae-yo] 
= “As for tomorrow, I work.” 

Here, 내일 [nae-il], tomorrow, is followed by -은 [-eun] and is a topic, but not the subject of the verb 일하다 [il-ha-da], “to work” because it is not “tomorrow” that works but “I” that work. 


Subject marking particles

-이 [i] / -가 [ga] 

The role of subject marking particles is relatively simple compared to that of the role of topic marking particles.  

Words ending with a last consonant + -이 
Words ending with a vowel + -가

Examples

이 책[i chaek] = this book
이 책[i chaek] + 이 [i] = 이 책이 [i chae-gi]

가방 [ga-bang] = bag
가방 [ga-bang] + 이 [i] = 가방이 [ga-bang-i]

학교 [hak-gyo] = school
학교 [hak-gyo] + 가 [ga] = 학교가 [hak-gyo-ga]

So, basically, topic marking particles (-은/는) express what the topic of the sentence is, and subject marking particles (-이/가) show what the subject of the sentence is, but that’s not everything. 


What more is there about the particles -은/는/이/가? 

(1) 
In addition to marking topics, -은/는 [-eun/neun] has the nuance of “about” something, “as for” something, or even “unlike other things” or “different from other things.” 

(2) 
In addition to marking subjects, -이/가 [-i/ga] has the nuance of “none other than” “nothing but” and also, when used inside a complex sentence, the role of marking the subject without emphasizing it too much. 


Let’s look at some examples of (1). 

이거 [i-geo] = this  /  사과 [sa-gwa] = apple  / -예요 [-ye-yo] = to be / is 
이거 사과예요. [i-geo sa-gwa-ye-yo] = This is an apple. 

You can add -은/는 to this, and in this case the subject, 이거, ends in a vowel, so add -는. 

이거는 사과예요. [i-geo-NEUN sa-gwa-ye-yo] 
= (The other things are not apples, but) THIS is an apple.

So you can imagine someone talking like this:

이거 커피예요. [i-geo keo-pi-ye-yo]  
(= This is coffee)

이거는 물이에요. [i-geo-NEUN mul-i-e-yo] 
(= That was coffee, but THIS ONE, it’s water.)

이거는 오렌지주스예요. [i-geo-NEUN o-ren-ji-ju-seu-ye-yo]
(= And THIS ONE, it’s different again, it’s orange juice.)

이거는 뭐예요? [i-geo-NEUN mwo-ye-yo?] 
(= And what about this one? What is it?)

As you can see from this example, -은/는 has the role of emphasizing the topic of the sentence by giving it the nuance of “that one is ... and/but THIS ONE is...” So sometime it is unnatural to used -은/는 in every sentence you say. 

So in Korean, although -은 and -는 are generally topic marking particles, people often save -은/는 for really emphasizing the topic in contrast to the other parts of the sentence.

For example, if you want to say “The weather’s nice today.” in Korean, you can say it in many ways. (Don’t worry about the entire sentence here. Just focus on the use of -은/는.)

1) 오늘 날씨 좋네요. [o-neul nal-ssi jot-ne-yo.]
    The weather’s good today.

2) 오늘은 날씨 좋네요. [o-neul-EUN nal-ssi jot-ne-yo.]
    (The weather hasn’t been so good lately, but TODAY, it’s good.)

3) 오늘 날씨는 좋네요. [o-neul nal-ssi-NEUN jot-ne-yo]
    (Today, not necessarily everything else too, but at least the weather is good.)

The examples above show how powerful and useful the topic marking particles (-은/는) can be in changing the nuance of your Korean sentences!


Let’s look at some examples of (2).

좋아요 [jo-a-yo] = it’s good  /  뭐 [mwo] = what  / 이/가 [-i/ga] = subject marking particles

이 책 좋아요. [i chaek jo-a-yo] 
(The simplest way to say “This book is good.”)

이 책은 좋아요. [i chae-geun jo-a-yo] 
(The other books are not good, and I don’t care about the other books. At least this book is good.)

이 책이 좋아요. [i chae-gi jo-a-yo] 
(None other than this book is good. Somebody might have asked me which book is good, and I want to say this one is good compare to other books. So this is kind of like an answer to the question of “Which one is good?”.)

But if you are not quite sure WHAT is good, you can ask “WHAT is good?” or “What are you talking about?” 

In order to express your curiosity as to “WHAT” is good, you can ask:
뭐가 좋아요?  [mwo-GA jo-a-yo?]

Here the word 가 [ga] emphasize what the subject of the verb “to be / 좋아요” is. 

If one says, “ABC 좋아요. [ABC jo-a-yo] = ABC is good.” And if you disagree and you think XYZ is good, not ABC. You can express your opinion that the subject of “being good” should be XYZ, not ABC, by saying “ABC 좋아요? XYZ가 좋아요! [ABC jo-a-yo? XYZ-GA jo-a-yo]”

So, with -이 and -가, you can add more flavor and more concrete meanings to your Korean sentences when you want to emphasize WHO did something, WHICH ONE is good, and etc.

Is that everything? Almost. 


As you can see from above, -은/는 and -이/가 both have different roles, but the roles of -은/는 as a ‘contrast’ factor is much stronger, because you can change the topic of a sentence with -은/는. So, when you form complex sentences (i.e. I think the book that you bought is more interesting than the book I bought.), in general, -은/는 is not so commonly used all over the sentences. Often times -은/는/이/가 can be dropped, but when you need particles to clarify the meaning, -이/가 will be more commonly used.

This lesson will introduce the topic marking particles and the subject marking particles in the Korean language. The topic marking particles and the subject marking particles play a very important role in Korean so it’s very important that you learn them well. But even some advanced-level speakers of the language can make mistakes regarding these particles, so please don’t worry even if you don’t get them right away. You will eventually be able to use them naturally after some practice.
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