How about …? / ~ 어때요?
What do you think about …? / 어떻게 생각하세요? / 어떤 것 같아요?
One of the most … / 가장 ~ 중의 하나
Do you mind if I …? / -아/어/여도 돼요?
I’m in the middle of …-ing / -는 중이에요
Word Builder Lesson 9 / -님
One way or the other / 어차피
I’m not sure if … / -(으/느)ㄴ지 잘 모르겠어요.
While you are at it / -(으)ㄴ/는 김에
Sentence Building Drill 6
I mean… / 그러니까, 제 말 뜻은, -라고요, 말이에요
What do you mean? What does that mean? / 무슨 말이에요?
Word Builder 10 - 과(過)
“/ (slash)” or“and” / -(으)ㄹ 겸
The thing that is called, what they call … / -(이)라는 것
let me tell you… / -거든(요)
Either A or B, Or / -거나, -(이)나, 아니면
To improve, to change, to increase / -아/어/여지다 Part 2
Sentence Building Drill 7
Passive Voice – Part 1
Word Builder 11 / 무 (無)
Passive Voice – Part 2
I DID do it, I DO like it / -기는 하다
Easy/difficult to + V / -기 쉽다/어렵다
I thought I would …, I didn’t think you would … / -(으)ㄴ/ㄹ 줄 알다
Can, to be able to, to know how to / -(으)ㄹ 수 있다, -(으)ㄹ 줄 알다
It depends on … / -에 따라 달라요
Sometimes I do this, sometimes I do that / 어떨 때는 -고, 어떨 때는 -아/어/여요
Sentence Building Drill 8
In this lesson, let’s take a look at the commonly used verb ending, -거든(요). It has a very subtle meaning, and when used correctly and appropriately, it can make your Korean sound much more natural and fluent.
Usages of -거든(요)
1. -거든(요) can be used to express a reason or some background explanation for something, except -거든(요) forms a separate sentence from the sentence expressing a result. Other expressions that can express reasons for something are -아/어/여서, -(으)니까, and -기 때문에, but these are used in the same sentence with the result. However, -거든(요) is mostly added separately to your statement about what happened or will happen.
저도 모르겠어요. 저 방금 왔거든요.
= I don’t know either. I just got here.
You could say, “저 방금 왔어요.” but by adding “-거든요”, you are adding flavor to your sentence and making it sound more natural. It is also showing a reason for your answer.
If you use -아/어/여서, -(으)니까, or -기 때문에 to say “because” or “since”, the clause that explains the reason comes before your answer; with -거든요, the result usually comes first and the sentence that explains the reason comes next.
저 방금 와서 저도 모르겠어요.
= I just got here so I don’t know.
People sometimes say the “-거든요” part of the sentence alone just to explain the reason for something, as long as the result is clear.
저 방금 왔거든요. = Because I just got here.
2. -거든(요) can also be used when you are implying that your story is continued. When you mention one thing in a sentence that ends with -거든(요), the other person will expect you to mention another thing that’s related to what you just said in the next sentence.
제가 지금 돈이 없거든요. 만 원만 빌려주세요.
= I don’t have any money now. (So...) Please lend me just 10,000 won.
“제가 지금 돈이 없어요. 만 원만 빌려 주세요.” has the same meaning but by using “-거든요”, you are implying that you aren’t finished with your story.
제가 지금 좀 바쁘거든요.
= I’m a little busy now, so…
아까 효진 씨 만났거든요. 그런데 이상한 말을 했어요.
= I met Hyojin earlier. But she said something strange.
* If someone ends a sentence with, “-거든요”, you don’t want to interrupt them as they want to say more.
아직 말할 수 없어요. 비밀이거든요.
= I can’t tell you yet. (Because) It’s a secret.
지난 주에 제주도에 갔거든요. 그런데 계속 비가 왔어요.
= I went to Jeju Island last week. But it kept raining.
내일은 안 바빠요. 오늘 일을 다 끝냈거든요.
= I’m not busy tomorrow. (Because) I finished all the work today.
Generally, -거든요 is used when you want to soften your speech or express a reason for something indirectly, but sometimes when you are upset, you can use -거든요 as the sentence ending to express the reason that supports or explains your anger.
= I don’t need it!
= It’s already too late!
= It’s over. / I don’t need that.