Level 6 Korean Grammar

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1

How about …? / ~ 어때요?

2

What do you think about …? / 어떻게 생각하세요? / 어떤 것 같아요?

3

One of the most … / 가장 ~ 중의 하나

4

Do you mind if I …? / -아/어/여도 돼요?

5

I’m in the middle of …-ing / -는 중이에요

6

Word Builder Lesson 9 / -님

7

One way or the other / 어차피

8

I’m not sure if … / -(으/느)ㄴ지 잘 모르겠어요.

9

While you are at it / -(으)ㄴ/는 김에

10

Sentence Building Drill 6

11

I mean… / 그러니까, 제 말 뜻은, -라고요, 말이에요

12

What do you mean? What does that mean? / 무슨 말이에요?

13

Word Builder 10 - 과(過)

14

“/ (slash)” or“and” / -(으)ㄹ 겸

15

The thing that is called, what they call … / -(이)라는 것

16

Suffix -겠-

17

let me tell you… / -거든(요)

18

Either A or B, Or / -거나, -(이)나, 아니면

19

To improve, to change, to increase / -아/어/여지다 Part 2

20

Sentence Building Drill 7

21

Passive Voice – Part 1

22

Word Builder 11 / 무 (無)

23

Passive Voice – Part 2

24

I DID do it, I DO like it / -기는 하다

25

Easy/difficult to + V / -기 쉽다/어렵다

26

I thought I would …, I didn’t think you would … / -(으)ㄴ/ㄹ 줄 알다

27

Can, to be able to, to know how to / -(으)ㄹ 수 있다, -(으)ㄹ 줄 알다

28

It depends on … / -에 따라 달라요

29

Sometimes I do this, sometimes I do that / 어떨 때는 -고, 어떨 때는 -아/어/여요

30

Sentence Building Drill 8

Either A or B, Or / -거나, -(이)나, 아니면

Saying “or” to link words or sentences is very simple in English, but isn’t as simple in Korean; it all depends on what part of speech you are linking that makes the translation vary. In this lesson, we are taking a look at a few of the various ways to say “or” so we can help you become a more fluent Korean speaker!

Welcome back to another TalkToMeInKorean lesson. Sometimes very simple words in English can become something more complicated in Korean and vice versa. Today’s key expression is an example of that. In this lesson, let’s learn how to say “or” in Korean.

The word “or” can be used to link nouns, adverbs, adjectives, verbs, or even sentences. You don’t need multiple expression to say “or” in English, but in Korean, depending on what kind of word you are linking, the translations for “or” can be different.


NOUN + OR + NOUN

In order to link two nouns, you can use -(이)나.


After nouns that end with a consonant, add -이나.

After nouns that end with a vowel, add -나.


Ex)

공원이나 영화관 = a park or a movie theater

학생이나 선생님 = a student or a teacher

여기나 저기 = here or there


You can also use the word 아니면, which literally means “if not”.


Ex)

공원 아니면 영화관 

학생 아니면 선생님 

여기 아니면 저기


VERB + OR + VERB

Since adjectives are essentially “descriptive verbs” in Korean, adjectives and verbs are linked in the same manner. After verb stems, you can use -거나.


Ex)

먹거나 = eat or…

전화하거나 = make a phone call or…

집에 가거나 = go home or...


The tense (present, past or future) is expressed through the last verb, so the last verb has to be conjugated accordingly to show the tense of the entire sentence.


Ex)

집에 가거나 친구를 만날 거예요.

= I will (either) go home or meet a friend.


“가다” is changed to “가거나” but you don’t add “-거나” to “만나다”.

Sometimes people add -거나 to all of the sentences (Ex: 집에 가거나, 친구를 만나거나) and in that case, they use the verb 하다 (= to do) to finish the sentence.


Ex)

집에 가거나 친구를 만나거나 할 거예요.


In addition to using -거나 at the end of the sentence, you can add 아니면 as well between the two actions.


Ex)

집에 가거나 아니면 친구를 만날 거예요.

* There are other ways of saying “or” with verbs, such as “-든지” and “-든가” but more on those in future lessons!


SENTENCE + OR + SENTENCE

In previous usages, we’ve seen that -(이)나 is used with nouns and -거나 is used with verbs. When you want to say “or” between two sentences, you simply use 아니면. 아니면 can be broken down into “아니다 (= to be not) + -(으)면 (= if)”. 아니면 literally means “if not” or “if that’s not the case”.


Ex)

집에 갈 거예요? 아니면 친구를 만날 거예요?

= Are you going to go home? Or are you going to meet a friend?


이거 살 거예요? 아니면 다른 거 살 거예요?

= Are you going to buy this? Or are you going to buy something else? 


You could say these sentences without “아니면”, but it sounds more natural including it between the two sentences.

Saying “or” to link words or sentences is very simple in English, but isn’t as simple in Korean; it all depends on what part of speech you are linking that makes the translation vary. In this lesson, we are taking a look at a few of the various ways to say “or” so we can help you become a more fluent Korean speaker!
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