I see that …, I just realized that … / -(는)구나 / -(는)군요
To pretend to + V / -(으/느)ㄴ 척하다/체하다
To be doable/understandable/bearable / -(으)ㄹ 만하다
Like + N / -같이, -처럼
As much as / -((으)ㄹ) 만큼
Word Builder 12 / 원 (院)
Even if …, there is no use / -아/어/여 봤자
I saw that ... so / -길래
Because I was... / -느라고
Sentence Building Drill 9
Making Things Happen (Causative)
I saw that... / -더라(고요)
Word Builder 13 / 기 (機)
No matter how… / 아무리 -아/어/여도
What was it again? / 뭐더라?, 뭐였죠?
I said … / -다니까(요), -라니까(요)
They say …/-(느)ㄴ대요/-(이)래요
They say … / -(느)ㄴ다던데요/-(이)라던데요
Making reported questions / -냐고
Sentence Building Drill 10
Didn’t you hear him say … / -(ㄴ/는)다잖아요/-라잖아요
Word Builder 14 / 정 (定)
No matter whether you do it or not / -(으)나 마나
Passive Voice + -어 있다 / To have been put into a certain state
To be bound to + V / -게 되어 있다
On top of …, in addition to … / -(으/느)ㄴ 데다가
As long as / -(느)ㄴ 한, -기만 하면
The thing that is called + Verb / -(ㄴ/는)다는 것
So that …, to the point where … / -도록
Sentence Building Drill 11
In English, when you want to say “make someone do something” or “make something do something”, you need that extra word “make” or other words such as “let”, “have”, etc. But in Korean, this works in a slightly different way. In Level 6 Lesson 21, we introduced the suffixes -이/히/리/기- that makes a verb "passive voice". These same suffixes are also used to convert a verb into the causative verb.
There are general rules for where these suffixes are used, but there are a lot of exceptions so it's best to learn by trial and error as well as by looking at a lot of common examples.
Not all the verbs, however, can be changed into causative verbs by adding these suffixes. You can't form a causative verb with -이/히/리/기/우/구/추- when the verb is already a transitive verb. For example, "to push" is 밀다 in Korean and it's already a transitive verb. So if you add -리 to it and make it 밀리다, it is changed to the passive voice, "to be pushed".
At first, it will be easier for you to "understand" these suffixes than to "use" them.
When a certain verb doesn't work with these suffixes, you can still change it into the causative form by adding -게 하다 [-ge ha-da]. An example of such verbs is 가다 [ga-da]. 가다 doesn't work with -이/히/리/기/우/구/추, so you can only say "가게 하다" to say "to make someone go".
All verbs can be changed into the causative form by using -게 하다.
Some verbs can be changed into the causative form by using -이/히/리/기/우/구/추-. (These verbs are more commonly used with -이/히/리/기/우/구/추- than with -게 하다.)
-이- is used mostly after a vowel or sometimes after ㄱ.
녹다 = to melt / 녹이다 = to make something melt, to melt something
보다 = to see / 보이다 = to show
높다 = to be high / 높이다 = to make something higher, to heighten
-히- is used mostly after ㄱ, ㄷ, or ㅂ.
입다 = to wear / 입히다 = to make someone wear something
읽다 = to read / 읽히다 = to make someone read something
앉다 = to sit / 앉히다 = to seat someone, to make someone sit
밝다 = to be bright / 밝히다 = to brighten
-리- is used mostly after ㄹ or ㄷ irregular.
울다 = to cry / 울리다 = to make someone cry
놀다 = to play / 놀리다 = to let/make someone play, to tease
-기- is used mostly after ㄴ, ㅁ, or ㅅ.
신다 = to wear (shoes) / 신기다 = to make someone wear (shoes)
안다 = to hug / 안기다 = to make someone hug someone
-우/구/추- have too many exceptions to generalize the rule.
낮다 = to be low / 낮추다 = to lower, to make something lower
맞다 = to fit / 맞추다 = to guess correctly, to make something fit
자다 = to sleep / 재우다 = to make someone sleep
크다 = to be big / 키우다 = to make something bigger, to grow
차다 = to be filled up / 채우다 = to fill
하다 and 시키다
If you remember from the passive voice lessons, 하다 changes to 되다 when you make it passive. When you want to use 하다 and say "make someone do something", you can use the word 시키다 [si-ki-da]. This can also be applied to many "noun+-하다" verbs.
공부하다 = to study / 공부시키다 = to make someone study
준비하다 = to prepare / 준비시키다 = to get someone ready
1. 아이들 울리지 마세요.
[a-i-deul ul-li-ji ma-se-yo.]
= Don't make the kids cry.
2. 너무 높으니까 좀 낮춰 주세요.
[neo-mu no-peu-ni-kka jom nat-chwo ju-se-yo.]
= It's too high, so lower it a little.
3. 다른 것도 보여 주세요.
[da-reun geot-do bo-yeo ju-se-yo.]
= Show me some other things, too.
4. 제가 너무 바빠서 다른 사람한테 시켰어요.
[je-ga neo-mu ba-ppa-seo da-reun sa-ram-han-te si-kyeo-sseo-yo.]
= I was too busy so I made another person do it.
5. 아이 세 명을 키우고 있어요.
[a-i se myeong-eul ki-u-go i-sseo-yo.]
= I am raising three kids.
Even More Examples
1. 좁다 = to be narrow / 좁히다 = to make something narrower
2. 넓다 = to be wide / 넓히다 = to widen
3. 남다 = to remain / 남기다 = to leave (a comment), to leave something over
4. 숨다 = to hide / 숨기다 = to hide something, to make something hidden
5. 넘다 = to go over / 넘기다 = to make something go over something