I see that …, I just realized that … / -(는)구나 / -(는)군요
To pretend to + V / -(으/느)ㄴ 척하다/체하다
To be doable/understandable/bearable / -(으)ㄹ 만하다
Like + N / -같이, -처럼
As much as / -((으)ㄹ) 만큼
Word Builder 12 / 원 (院)
Even if …, there is no use / -아/어/여 봤자
I saw that ... so / -길래
Because I was... / -느라고
Sentence Building Drill 9
Making Things Happen (Causative)
I saw that... / -더라(고요)
Word Builder 13 / 기 (機)
No matter how… / 아무리 -아/어/여도
What was it again? / 뭐더라?, 뭐였죠?
I said … / -다니까(요), -라니까(요)
They say …/-(느)ㄴ대요/-(이)래요
They say … / -(느)ㄴ다던데요/-(이)라던데요
Making reported questions / -냐고
Sentence Building Drill 10
Didn’t you hear him say … / -(ㄴ/는)다잖아요/-라잖아요
Word Builder 14 / 정 (定)
No matter whether you do it or not / -(으)나 마나
Passive Voice + -어 있다 / To have been put into a certain state
To be bound to + V / -게 되어 있다
On top of …, in addition to … / -(으/느)ㄴ 데다가
As long as / -(느)ㄴ 한, -기만 하면
The thing that is called + Verb / -(ㄴ/는)다는 것
So that …, to the point where … / -도록
Sentence Building Drill 11
In this lesson, we are taking a look at the verb ending -더라 [-deo-ra]. You will hear this often in situations where one person is telling another what they found out or experienced.
What is -더라?
-더라 [-deo-ra] is used when you are telling someone else about a new fact that you have learned about, by experiencing (i.e. seeing, finding, realizing, etc) something yourself.
예쁘다 [ye-ppeu-da] = to be pretty
예뻐요 [ye-ppeo-yo] = (She's/It's) pretty.
--> 예쁘 + -더라 = 예쁘더라 [ye-ppeu-deo-ra] = She's pretty! / I saw her and she's so pretty!
춥다 [chup-da] = to be cold
추워요 [chu-wo-yo] = It's cold.
--> 춥 + - 더라 = 춥더라 [chup-deo-ra] = It was so cold! / I went there and it was so cold!
Like in the examples above, when you use -더라, it should be about a past action, because you are talking about something that you've already experienced.
What is the difference between -더라, -더라고 and -더라고요?
Basically it's -더라 [-deo-ra], but you can add -고 [-go] to slightly change the meaning. When you add -요 [-yo] at the end, you already know that it makes the sentence more polite.
When you use -더라, you tell someone a fact about something, based on what you saw or experienced, but in more 'exclamatory' way.
When you use -더라고 instead of -더라, the tone of your sentence is more calm, and it sounds less excited and conclusive than when you say -더라.
나는 그거 좋더라. [na-neun geu-geo jo-teo-ra]. = (I check it out and) I like it.
나는 그거 좋더라고. [na-neun geu-geo jo-teo-ra-go.] = (I check it out and) I like it. [More calm and neutral]
How do you say -더라 in 존댓말?
You can’t change -더라 to 존댓말 just by adding -요 at the end. With -더라, however, it's a little bit different. You need to use the ending -던데요.
And naturally, you can also make it change back to 반말 by getting ride of -요 at the end of -던데요.
1. 그 영화 어제 봤는데, 재밌더라!
= I saw that movie yesterday, and it was fun!
2. 어제 경화 씨를 만났는데, 머리를 염색했더라.
= I met Kyung-hwa yesterday and she had dyed her hair.
3. 싱가폴에 처음 가 봤는데, 정말 덥더라.
= I went to Singapore for the first time, and it's really hot there.
4. 윤아 씨한테 물어봤는데, 모르더라.
= I asked Yoona, and she doesn't know.
5. 아까 효진 씨를 만났는데, 남자친구랑 있더라.
= I met Hyojin earlier, and she was with her boyfriend.
1. -더라 normally doesn't work with statements about one's own will or action.
Ex) 아침에 일어났는데 내가 바쁘더라. (x)
2. You can use -더라 about your own emotions, but normally not about other people's emotions.
Ex) 걱정되더라 means YOU are worrying about other people.
석진 씨가 걱정되더라 can be used if YOU are worried about 석진 but you can't use it when 석진 is worried.
3. You can NOT use -더라 when you have NOT experienced, seen, or read about something yourself.
Ex) 콘서트에 갔는데, 가수가 노래를 잘하더라. (o) / 콘서트에 못 갔는데, 가수가 노래를 잘하더라. (x)