Level 8 Korean Grammar

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1

Advanced Idiomatic Expressions / 눈 (eye) – Part 1

2

Advanced Idiomatic Expressions / 눈 (eye) – Part 2

3

Right after + V-ing / -기가 무섭게, -기가 바쁘게

4

N + that (someone) used to + V / -던

5

Advanced Situational Expressions: Refusing in Korean

6

It means … / -(ㄴ/는)다는 뜻이에요

7

Word Builder 15 / 점 (點)

8

I hope …, I wish … / -(으)면 좋겠어요

9

Past Tense (Various Types) / 과거시제 총정리

10

Advanced Idiomatic Expressions – 귀 (ear)

11

Sentence Building Drill 12

12

Present Tense (Various Types) / 현재시제 총정리

13

Word Builder 16 / 주 (主)

14

Advanced Situational Expressions: Agreeing

15

Future Tense (Various Types) / 미래시제 총정리

16

Advanced Idiomatic Expressions – 가슴 (chest, heart, breast)

17

If only it’s not … / -만 아니면

18

In the same way that …, just like someone did … / -(으)ㄴ 대로

19

Even if I would have to, even if that means I have to / -는 한이 있더라도

20

Sentence Building Drill 13

21

Advanced Idiomatic Expressions – 머리 (head, hair)

22

Word Builder 17 / 상 (上)

23

Advanced Situational Expressions: Making Suggestions in Korean

24

It is just that …, I only … / -(으)ㄹ 따름이다

25

Advanced Situational Expressions: Defending in Korean

26

Advanced Idiomatic Expressions – 몸 (body)

27

Advanced Situational Expressions: Complimenting in Korean

28

despite, in spite of / -에도 불구하고

29

Advanced Situational Expressions: When You Feel Happy

30

Sentence Building Drill 14

Past Tense (Various Types) / 과거시제 총정리

We’ve compiled some of the various types of Korean past tense structures into one lesson! Yay! Some of the structures we’ve already covered in our previous lessons, so If you haven’t fully learned how to use these structures and would like a full explanation, go back and check out the related lessons. Happy studying!

This lesson is a review and summary of the various types of past tense structures in the Korean language.  There is only one basic past tense structure, the suffix -았/었/였, but by using other structures, you can add more specific meanings to your sentences. 


1. Basic Past Tense with "-았/었/였" (Level 1 Lesson 17)

Verb stem + -았/었/였 + -어요


Ex) 

사다 = to buy 

→ 사 + -았어요 = 샀어요 = I (or someone else) bought it. 


주다 = to give

→ 주 + -었어요 = 줬어요 = I gave it (to someone). 


2. -았/었/였었어요 

To emphasize that one “had” done something in the past or before another action/state, some people add the suffix one more time, making it -았/었/였었어요 instead -았/었/였어요.


Ex) 

보다 = to see, to watch

→ 보 + -았어요 = 봤어요 = I saw.

→ 보 + -았 + 었어요 = 봤었어요 = I saw it a long time ago. I had seen it before.


3. -고는 했어요

To talk about something that you used to do regularly or habitually, you can use the ending “-고는 했어요.” When you use -고는 했어요 after a verb, it implies that you don’t do it any longer. 


Ex)

보다 = to watch

→ 보 + -고는 했어요 = 보고는 했어요 = I used to watch.


밤 늦게까지 TV를 보고는 했어요.

= I used to watch TV until late at night.


가끔 친구들을 만나고는 했어요.

= I used to meet my friends from time to time.


4. -ㄴ/은 (Level 4 Lesson 26)

-ㄴ/은 is the conjugation you can use after a verb stem to modify a noun. -ㄴ/은 needs to be followed by the noun that the verb modifies either as the object or the subject. 


Ex)

마시다 = to drink

마시 + -ㄴ = 마신 = that I drank

어제 마신 커피 = the coffee that I drank yesterday


아까 이야기한 책 

= the book I talked about earlier


이 책을 쓴 사람 

= the person who wrote the book


5. -던 (Level 8 Lesson 4)

-던 is also used after a verb to modify a noun. -ㄴ/은 is the basic verb ending for modifying nouns, but if you use -던, you can add the nuance of “used to” or “was doing but didn’t finish”. 


Ex)

마시다 = to drink

→ 마신 = (something) that I drank

→ 마시던 = (something) that I was drinking, (something) that I used to drink

그거 제가 마시던 커피예요. = That’s the coffee I was drinking (but didn’t finish). 


어렸을 때 제가 좋아했던 만화책이에요. 

= It’s a comic book that I used to like when I was a kid.


6. -(으)ㄹ 뻔 했어요 (Level 5 Lesson 1)

When you say -(으)ㄹ 뻔 했어요 after a verb stem, it means that something “almost happened” or that you “almost did” something. 


Ex)

잊다 = to forget

→ 잊 + -(으)ㄹ 뻔 했어요 = 잊을 뻔 했어요 = I almost forgot.


넘어지다 = to fall down (on the ground)

→ 넘어질 뻔 했어요. = I almost fell down.


너무 놀라서 소리를 지를 뻔 했어요.

= I was so surprised that I almost screamed.


너무 무거워서 떨어뜨릴 뻔 했어요.

= It was so heavy that I almost dropped it.


7. -아/어/여 봤어요 (Level 4 Lesson 12)

-아/어/여 보다 means “to try doing something” or “to give something a try”. By using this in the past tense, you can say “I’ve tried doing + something + before” or “I have done + something + before” in Korean.


Ex)

듣다 = to listen

→ 듣 + -어 보다 → 들어 보다 (irregular conjugation)

→ 이 노래 들어 봤어요? = Have you heard this song (before)?


이거 읽어 봤어요? = Have you read this? / Have you tried reading this? 


8. -(으)ㄴ 적 있어요

-(으)ㄴ 적 있어요 is used after verb stems to mean “I have done + something + before”, to talk about one’s experience. You can also use -아/어/여 본 적 있다 to mean the same thing, using the -아/어/여 보다 structure. 


Ex) 

배우다 = to learn

→ 배우 + ㄴ 적 있어요 = 배운 적 있어요 = I have learned it before. I have the experience of learning it. 

→ 중국어 배운 적 있어요? = Have you learned Chinese before?

→ 중국어 배워 본 적 있어요? = Have you tried learning Chinese before?


여기는 와 본 적 없어요. = I haven’t been here before.

We’ve compiled some of the various types of Korean past tense structures into one lesson! Yay! Some of the structures we’ve already covered in our previous lessons, so If you haven’t fully learned how to use these structures and would like a full explanation, go back and check out the related lessons. Happy studying!
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