Advanced Idiomatic Expressions / 손 (Hand)
-아/어/여 버리다 / completed action
Advanced Situational Expressions: When You Are Unhappy
-고 말다 / (unintended) completed action
Advanced Situational Expressions: When you are worried
Advanced Idiomatic Expressions – 발 (foot)
Word Builder 18 / 비 (非)
Advanced Situational Expressions: Asking a favor
-(으)ㅁ / simplifying a sentence ending
Sentence Building Drill 15
Advanced Idiomatic Expressions – 마음 (mind, heart)
-아/어/여 보이다 / looks like, seems like
Word Builder 19 / 신 (新)
Advanced Situational Expressions: 후회할 때
Advanced Idiomatic Expressions – 기분 (feeling)
-(으)ㄹ 테니(까) / in return for, since it will be ...
-(으/느)ㄴ 이상 / as long as, since
-(으)ㄹ까 보다 / expressing concern or reason for a decision
Advanced Situational Expressions: 오랜만에 만났을 때
Sentence Building Drill 16
Advanced Idiomatic Expressions – 생각 (thought, idea)
Word builder 20 / 시 (示, 視)
-(으)면서 / while
-(ㄴ/는)다면서(요), -(이)라면서(요) / didn't you say ...
Advanced Situational Expressions: 길을 물어볼 때
Advanced Idiomatic Expressions – 시간 (time)
-더니 / this happened and then that happened
-(으)ㄹ 바에 / might as well, I would rather
Advanced Situational Expressions: 차가 막힐 때
Sentence Building Drill 17
In this lesson, we are introducing the structure -(으/느)ㄴ 이상. The word 이상 (以上), by itself, means “not lower than” or “from this point and above”, and when used in the form -(으/느)ㄴ 이상, it can mean that the preceding clause is a fact that makes the following clause something that’s naturally expected or supposed thing to happen.
-(으/느)ㄴ 이상 can be used in both the present tense and in the past tense, but with the present tense, it is used more often in writing than when speaking.
저도 이 회사의 직원인 이상, 이 행사에 꼭 참여해야 돼요.
= Since I'm also an employee of this company, I must participate in this event.
Therefore, especially in spoken language, the structure -(으/느)ㄴ 이상 is used more commonly in the past tense than in the present tense. When used in the past tense, it can be translated to "since you have already done this, this is bound to happen" or "you have done this, so this has to be the way things are".
이미 공식 발표를 한 이상, 이제 취소할 수는 없어요.
= Since we've already made a public announcement, we can't cancel it now.
1. 비행기를 탄 이상, 도착할 때까지 내릴 수 없어요.
= Now that you've boarded the airplane, you can't get out until you arrive.
2. 한번 시작한 이상, 중간에 포기할 수 없어요.
= Once you've started, you can't quit in the middle.
3. 여기까지 온 이상, 포기하지 말고 열심히 하세요.
= Since you've come this far, don't give up and keep working hard.
4. 출근을 안 할 수는 있지만, 출근을 한 이상, 일을 안 할 수는 없어요.
= I could just not go to work, but once I've [actually] gone to work, I have to work [lit: I can’t not do work].
5. 이 방에 들어온 이상, 이 게임을 꼭 해야 돼요.
= Once you've come into this room, you must play this game.
When -(으/느)ㄴ 이상 is used in a negative form, the sentence can take the meaning of "as long as" or "unless", and the following clause usually describes a negative situation or is a negative statement.
(1) Negative form + -(으/느)ㄴ 이상
As there are various ways to form a negative sentence in Korean, this structure also works with various forms of negative verb endings.
1. 비행기를 타지 않는 이상, 그렇게 빨리 갈 수가 없어요.
= Unless you take the airplane, you can't go that fast.
2. 계산기를 쓰지 않는 이상, 이렇게 복잡한 계산은 못 해요.
= Unless I use a calculator, I can't do such a complex calculation.
3. 아주 아프지 않은 이상, 저는 수업에 빠지지 않아요.
= Unless I'm very sick, I don't skip classes.
(2) Noun + -이/가 아닌 이상
With nouns, since you need to add the verb -이다 before you can conjugate it, you add the structure -이/가 아닌 이상 after the noun.
1. 여기 직원이 아닌 이상, 들어갈 수가 없어요.
= Unless you're a staff member here, you can't go in.
2. 가족이 아닌 이상, 그런 건 알 수가 없어요.
= Unless you are his family, it's impossible to know such things.
3. 중요한 일이 아닌 이상, 지금 이 시간에 나갈 수는 없어요.
= Unless it's something important, I can't go out at this hour.