Future Tense / -ㄹ/을 거예요, 할 거예요
Object-marking Particles / -을, -를
And, and then, therefore, so / 그리고, 그래서
And, with / -하고, -(이)랑
Days In A Week / 요일
But, However / 그렇지만, 그런데
“To” someone, “From” someone / 한테, 한테서
Telling The Time
Counters / 개, 명
Present Progressive / -고 있어요
Self-introduction / 자기소개
What Is Today's Date? / 날짜
Too, Also / -도 (part 1)
Too, Also / -도 / (part 2)
Only / -만
Very, A bit, Really, Not really, Not at all / 아주, 조금, 진짜, 별로, 전혀
Can, Cannot / -ㄹ 수 있다/없다
To be good/poor at ... / 잘하다/못하다
Making Verbs Into Nouns / -는 것
Have to, Should, Must / -아/어/여야 되다/하다
More.. than... / -보다 더
To like / 좋다 vs 좋아하다
If, In case / 만약, -(으)면
Still, Already / 아직, 벌써
Something, Someday, Someone, Somewhere / 누군가, 무언가, 어딘가, 언젠가
Imperative / -(으)세요
Please do it for me. / -아/어/여 주세요
Particles For Method, Way / -(으)로
More, All / 더, 다
Don’t do it. / -지 마세요
Test Your Korean – Level 2 Dialogue in 100% Korean
In this lesson, we are going to take a look at how to say that you “have to” or “should” do something in Korean. The construction itself is quite simple to understand: you take the verb stem of a verb and a verb ending that makes the sentences take the meaning of “have to” or “should”.
to have to, should, must
= verb stem + -아/어/여 + -야 되다/하다
자다 [ ja-da] = to sleep
자 + -아/어/여 + -야 되다/하다
--> 자 + “-아” + -야 되다/하다 (You choose “-아” because 자 ends with the vowel “ㅏ”)
--> 자야 되다/하다 (You then drop the -아 because it’s the same same as “ㅏ”)
--> 자야 되다 and 자야 하다 are the same thing.
쓰다 [sseu-da] = to use; to write
쓰 + -아/어/여 + -야 되다/하다
--> 쓰 + “-어” + -야 되다/하다 (You choose “-어” because 쓰 doesn’t end in “ㅏ” or “ㅗ”)
--> 써야 되다/하다 (쓰 + 어 together change to ‘써’)
--> 써야 되다 and 써야 하다 mean the same thing.
The construction is basically one of the following:
1. verb stems ending in vowels ‘ㅏ’ or ‘ ㅗ’ + -아야 되다/하다
2. verb stems ending in other vowels + -어야 되다/하다
3. 하 + -여야 되다/하다
However, it is more important to understand WHY -아/어/여야 되다/하다 means “to have to” or “should”.
In order to understand this, we can look at the structure in two separate parts.
1. -아/어/여 + -야
This part means “only when _____ is done” or “only when you do _____”.
2. 되다 or 하다
되다 means “to be done” or “to be possible” and 하다 means “to do” something.
Therefore, if you put 1 and 2 together, it takes the meaning of “only when you do _____, it works”, “only when you do this, everything is alright”, or “only if _____ is done, it’s okay.” Thus, -아/어/여야 되다/하다 takes the meaning of “to have to” or “should.”
What is the difference between 하다 and 되다 here?
- The only difference is that using 되다 is more common in colloquial situations.
1. 집에 가야 돼요. [ ji-be ga-ya dwae-yo.]
= I have to go home.
2. 저는 뭐 해야 돼요? [ jeo-neun mwo hae-ya dwae-yo?]
= What should I do?
3. 언제까지 여기에 있어야 돼요? [eon-je-kka-ji yeo-gi-e i-sseo-ya dwae-yo?]
= Until when should I be here?
4. 누구한테 줘야 돼요? [nu-gu-han-te jwo-ya dwae-yo?]
= Who should I give this to?
5. 어디에서 사야 돼요? [eo-di-e-seo sa-ya dwae-yo?]
= Where should I buy it?