Level 2 Korean Grammar

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1

Future Tense / -ㄹ/을 거예요, 할 거예요

2

Object-marking Particles / -을, -를

3

And, and then, therefore, so / 그리고, 그래서

4

And, with / -하고, -(이)랑

5

Days In A Week / 요일

6

But, However / 그렇지만, 그런데

7

“To” someone, “From” someone / 한테, 한테서

8

Telling The Time

9

Counters / 개, 명

10

Present Progressive / -고 있어요

11

Self-introduction / 자기소개

12

What Is Today's Date? / 날짜

13

Too, Also / -도 (part 1)

14

Too, Also / -도 / (part 2)

15

Only / -만

16

Very, A bit, Really, Not really, Not at all / 아주, 조금, 진짜, 별로, 전혀

17

Can, Cannot / -ㄹ 수 있다/없다

18

To be good/poor at ... / 잘하다/못하다

19

Making Verbs Into Nouns / -는 것

20

Have to, Should, Must / -아/어/여야 되다/하다

21

More.. than... / -보다 더

22

To like / 좋다 vs 좋아하다

23

If, In case / 만약, -(으)면

24

Still, Already / 아직, 벌써

25

Something, Someday, Someone, Somewhere / 누군가, 무언가, 어딘가, 언젠가

26

Imperative / -(으)세요

27

Please do it for me. / -아/어/여 주세요

28

Particles For Method, Way / -(으)로

29

More, All / 더, 다

30

Don’t do it. / -지 마세요

31

Test Your Korean – Level 2 Dialogue in 100% Korean

Have to, Should, Must / -아/어/여야 되다/하다

안녕하세요! We are learning another great sentence pattern to know in this lesson! Listen in and find out how to say that you “have to” do something or something “should” be done.

In this lesson, we are going to take a look at how to say that you “have to” or “should” do something in Korean. The construction itself is quite simple to understand: you take the verb stem of a verb and a verb ending that makes the sentences take the meaning of “have to” or “should”.


to have to, should, must

= verb stem + -아/어/여 + -야 되다/하다


Examples:

자다 [ ja-da] = to sleep

자 + -아/어/여 + -야 되다/하다

--> 자 + “-아” + -야 되다/하다 (You choose “-아” because 자 ends with the vowel “ㅏ”)

--> 자야 되다/하다 (You then drop the -아 because it’s the same same as “ㅏ”)

--> 자야 되다 and 자야 하다 are the same thing.


쓰다 [sseu-da] = to use; to write

쓰 + -아/어/여 + -야 되다/하다

--> 쓰 + “-어” + -야 되다/하다 (You choose “-어” because 쓰 doesn’t end in “ㅏ” or “ㅗ”)

--> 써야 되다/하다 (쓰 + 어 together change to ‘써’)

--> 써야 되다 and 써야 하다 mean the same thing.


The construction is basically one of the following:

1. verb stems ending in vowels ‘ㅏ’ or ‘ ㅗ’ + -아야 되다/하다

2. verb stems ending in other vowels + -어야 되다/하다

3. 하 + -여야 되다/하다


However, it is more important to understand WHY -아/어/여야 되다/하다 means “to have to” or “should”.


In order to understand this, we can look at the structure in two separate parts.


1. -아/어/여 + -야

This part means “only when _____ is done” or “only when you do _____”.


2. 되다 or 하다

되다 means “to be done” or “to be possible” and 하다 means “to do” something.


Therefore, if you put 1 and 2 together, it takes the meaning of “only when you do _____, it works”, “only when you do this, everything is alright”, or “only if _____ is done, it’s okay.” Thus, -아/어/여야 되다/하다 takes the meaning of “to have to” or “should.”


What is the difference between 하다 and 되다 here?

- The only difference is that using 되다 is more common in colloquial situations.


Sample sentences

1. 집에 가야 돼요. [ ji-be ga-ya dwae-yo.]

= I have to go home.


2. 저는 뭐 해야 돼요? [ jeo-neun mwo hae-ya dwae-yo?]

= What should I do?


3. 언제까지 여기에 있어야 돼요? [eon-je-kka-ji yeo-gi-e i-sseo-ya dwae-yo?]

= Until when should I be here?


4. 누구한테 줘야 돼요? [nu-gu-han-te jwo-ya dwae-yo?]

= Who should I give this to?


5. 어디에서 사야 돼요? [eo-di-e-seo sa-ya dwae-yo?]

= Where should I buy it? 

안녕하세요! We are learning another great sentence pattern to know in this lesson! Listen in and find out how to say that you “have to” do something or something “should” be done.
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