Level 2 Korean Grammar

Unable to find Content type

0 / 31 Lessons
1

Future Tense / -ㄹ/을 거예요, 할 거예요

2

Object-marking Particles / -을, -를

3

And, and then, therefore, so / 그리고, 그래서

4

And, with / -하고, -(이)랑

5

Days In A Week / 요일

6

But, However / 그렇지만, 그런데

7

“To” someone, “From” someone / 한테, 한테서

8

Telling The Time

9

Counters / 개, 명

10

Present Progressive / -고 있어요

11

Self-introduction / 자기소개

12

What Is Today's Date? / 날짜

13

Too, Also / -도 (part 1)

14

Too, Also / -도 / (part 2)

15

Only / -만

16

Very, A bit, Really, Not really, Not at all / 아주, 조금, 진짜, 별로, 전혀

17

Can, Cannot / -ㄹ 수 있다/없다

18

To be good/poor at ... / 잘하다/못하다

19

Making Verbs Into Nouns / -는 것

20

Have to, Should, Must / -아/어/여야 되다/하다

21

More.. than... / -보다 더

22

To like / 좋다 vs 좋아하다

23

If, In case / 만약, -(으)면

24

Still, Already / 아직, 벌써

25

Something, Someday, Someone, Somewhere / 누군가, 무언가, 어딘가, 언젠가

26

Imperative / -(으)세요

27

Please do it for me. / -아/어/여 주세요

28

Particles For Method, Way / -(으)로

29

More, All / 더, 다

30

Don’t do it. / -지 마세요

31

Test Your Korean – Level 2 Dialogue in 100% Korean

Counters / 개, 명

We are always surrounded by objects, people, animals and many other things, and often, we need to COUNT them. Korean has a different kind of counting system from that of English, so let’s learn how to count things (and people) in Korean. In Korean there are hundreds of counters or quantifiers, but the two words that are most frequently used are 개 and 명.

In Korean, there are many words that are used as counting units. In English, you can just say the number and then the word for what you are counting (i.e. a person, two cats, three houses, etc.), but in Korean, you need to use separate counters for different subjects. You can compare the Korean counters to the English words that are used for counting things that are uncountable nouns (i.e. bread, water, butter, etc.)


** Since there are too many counters to remember all at once, it is better to learn them one by one as you practice using certain words.


Examples

English: number + noun

- a car, two pencils, three books, four people, etc


Korean: noun + number + counter

- “pencil + one + counter for pencil”

- “student + three + counter for people”


There are literally hundreds of counters in the Korean language, but not all of them are always used. As long as the speakers understand each other,  some Korean people just use the simplest and easiest counter to count certain words and it does not confuse anyone. For example, in Korean, a pencil is 연필 [yeon-pi] and the counter for pencils is 자루 [ ja-ru]. The word 자루 [ ja-ru] is also used for counting pens, bags containing grain, and knives. Instead of using the word 자루 all the time for 연필, many Korean people just use the general counter for things, which is 개 [gae].


연필 한 자루 [yeon-pil han ja-ru] = one pencil
연필 한 개 [yeon-pil han gae] = one pencil


This does NOT work for all counters. Some common counters are almost never replaced with 개. For example, the counter for cars is 대 [dae], and it is never replaced with 개 [gae]. In other words, changing 연필 한 자루 to 연필 한 개 is okay, but changing 차 한 대 to 차 한 개 is not okay and considered incorrect.


This is simply because the counter 대 is more frequently used than the counter 자루. However, as a learner of the Korean language, it is good to make a mistake with counters and be given feedback rather than just choosing not to say anything.


In this lesson, remember these two most frequently used counters, 개 and 명.


개 [gae] in Korean means “a dog”, but when it’s used as a counter, it is used for counting things and objects.

명 [myeong] is used for counting people.


When you use counters, most of the time, they are connected to native Korean numbers.


Numbers + 개 [gae] (counter for things)

1 = 하나 --> 한 개

2 = 둘 --> 두 개

3 = 셋 --> 세 개

4 = 넷 --> 네 개

** Remember this irregularity rule for the numbers 1, 2, 3, 4, and 20?

5 = 다섯 --> 다섯 개

6 = 여섯 --> 여섯 개

7 = 일곱 --> 일곱 개

8 = 여덟 --> 여덟 개

9 = 아홉 --> 아홉 개

10 = 열 --> 열 개


From 11 to 20

열한 개, 열두 개, 열세 개, 열네 개, 열다섯 개, 열여섯 개, 열일곱 개, 열여덟 개, 열아홉 개, 스무 


From 21 to 30

스무 개, 스물한 개, 스물두 개, 스물세 개, 스물네 개, 스물다섯 개, 스물여섯 개, 스물일곱 개, 스물여덟 개, 스물아홉 개, 서른 개


Examples

one apple = 사과 [sa-gwa] + 1 + 개 [gae] = 사과 한 개 [sa-gwa han gae]

two stones = 돌 [dol] + 2 + 개 [gae] = 돌 두 개 [dol du gae]

five balls = 공 [gong] + 5 + 개 [gae] = 공 다섯 개 [gong da-seot gae]

how many (things) = 몇 [myeot] + 개 [gae] = 몇 개 [myeot gae]


Now, for people, you use the counter 명 [myeong].

one person = 한 명 [han myeong]

two students = 학생 [hak-saeng] + 2 + 명 [myeong] = 학생 두 명 [hak-saeng du myeong]

three friends = 친구 [chin-gu] + 3 + 명 [myeong] = 친구 세 명 [chin-gu se myeong]

how many (people) = 몇 [myeot] + 명 [myeong] = 몇 명 [myeot myeong]


For people, however, the word for “people” or “person”, 사람 [sa-ram], is also used when you are generally referring to a relatively small number of people, without specifying who they are.


Examples

Q: How many people are there?

A: There are 10 people.


= Q: 몇 명 있어요? [myeot myeong i-sseo-yo?]

= A: 10명 있어요. [yeol-myeong i-sseo-yo.]


= Q: 몇 사람 있어요? [myeot sa-ram i-sseo-yo?]

= A: 열 사람 있어요. [eol sa-ram i-sseo-yo.] (This is unnatural.)

--> A: 두 사람 있어요. [du sa-ram i-sseo-yo.] (two people - this is okay.)


In case you want to learn more counters in advance, here are a few commonly used ones:


병 [byeong] = bottles 

몇 병 [myeot byeong] = how many bottles

마리 [ma-ri] = animals

개 한 마리 [gae han ma-ri] = one dog

새 한 마리 [sae han ma-ri] = one bird

오리 세 마리 [o-ri se ma-ri] = three ducks

대 [dae] = cars, punches

차 한 대 [cha han dae] = one car

차 세 대 [cha se dae] = three cars

권 [gwon] = books

책 한 권 [chaek han gwon] = one book

책 두 권 [chaek du gwon] = two books

장 [ jang] = paper, pages, tickets

종이 한 장 [jong-i han jang] = a sheet of paper



Sample sentences by our friends

영주: 아줌마 김치찌개 한 개 주세요.

[a-jum-ma gim-chi-jji-gae han gae ju-se-yo.]

= Ma’am, give me one kimchi stew.

찌개 [ jji-gae] = stew


영주: 소주도 한 병 주세요.

[so-ju-do han byeong ju-se-yo.]

= Give me a bottle of soju, as well.


효성: 다 먹고 세 개 남았어요.

[da meok-go se gae na-ma-sseo-yo.]

= I ate everything and there are three left.

다 [da] = all

남다 [nam-da] = to remain; to be left


효성: 사탕 몇 개 먹을래?

[sa-tang myeot gae meo-geul-lae?]

= How many candies do you want to eat?

사탕 [sa-tang] = candy

먹다 [meok-da] = to eat

We are always surrounded by objects, people, animals and many other things, and often, we need to COUNT them. Korean has a different kind of counting system from that of English, so let’s learn how to count things (and people) in Korean. In Korean there are hundreds of counters or quantifiers, but the two words that are most frequently used are 개 and 명.
Comments
주식회사 지나인 (사업자 번호 110-81-94935)
서울시 마포구 서교동 394-74번지 3층
Version: TTMIK v1.2.132-production