Too much, Very / 너무
Linking Verbs with -고
In front of, Behind, On top of, Under, Next to / 앞에, 옆에, 위에, 밑에, 뒤에
Shall we? / I wonder / -(으)ㄹ까요?
Approximately, About / 쯤, 약, 정도
Future Tenses / -(으)ㄹ 거예요 vs -(으)ㄹ게요
Linking Verbs With -아/어/여서
To look like, To seem like / 같아요
To seem like, To look like (with verbs) / -ㄴ 것 같아요
Before -ing / -기 전에
ㅂ irregular / ㅂ 불규칙
But still, Nevertheless / 그래도
Making Adjectives / Descriptive Verbs + -ㄴ 명사
Making Adjectives / Action Verbs + -는/(으)ㄴ/(으)ㄹ + 명사
Well then, In that case, If so / 그러면, 그럼
Let’s / -아/어/여요 (청유형)
In order to, For the sake of / 위하다, 위해, 위해서
Nothing but, Only / 밖에 + 부정형
After -ing / 다음에
Even if, Even though / -아/어/여도
Linking Verbs with -는데 / noun + -인데, adjective + -ㄴ데
Maybe I might… / -(으)ㄹ 수도 있어요
Word Builder 1 / 학(學)
르 irregular / 르 불규칙
Verb Ending / -네요
ㄷ irregular / ㄷ 불규칙
Politeness Levels / 반말 and 존댓말
“Let’s” in casual language / 반말
ㅅ irregular / ㅅ 불규칙
Word Builder 2 / 실(室)
Test Your Korean
You have learned a lot about Korean verbs so far - conjugations, rules, etc. Let’s continue our verb learning journey with irregularities! Just like many other languages, Korean has some irregularities which, over the course of time, were used more and more, so they eventually became a fixed rule.
Korean has much fewer verb irregularities than some other languages, but you will encounter these irregularities everywhere as you learn and speak Korean. We would like to introduce one of these irregularities in this lesson.
This mean that if verbs have ㅂ at the end of their verb stems, and they are followed by a suffix that starts with a vowel, the ㅂ part will change to 오 or 우.
If the vowel before ㅂ is 오, you change ㅂ to 오.
If the vowel before ㅂ is not 오, you change ㅂ to 우.
돕다 [dop-da] = to help
= 도 + ㅂ + 다
--> 도 + 오 + 아요 = 도와요
** Note that it is NOT 돕아요
어렵다 [eo-ryeop-da] = to be difficult
= 어려 + ㅂ + 다
--> 어려 + 우 + 어요. = 어려워요.
[present tense] 어려워요
[past tense] 어려웠어요
[future tense] 어려울 거예요
춥다 [chup-da] = to be cold
--> 추 + 우 + 어요 = 추워요.
[present tense] 추워요
[past tense] 추웠어요
[future tense] 추울 거예요
Some other irregular words:
눕다 [nup-da] = to lie down → 누워요.
굽다 [gup-da] = to bake → 구워요.
덥다 [deop-da] = to be hot (weather) → 더워요.
쉽다 [swip-da] = to be easy → 쉬워요.
맵다 [meap-da] = to be spicy → 매워요.
귀엽다 [gwi-yeop-da] = to be cute → 귀여워요.
밉다 [mip-da] = to hate; to be dislikeable → 미워요.
아름답다 [a-reum-dap-da] = to be beautiful → 아름다워요.
Remember that these verbs have irregular forms ONLY WHEN the suffix following the verb stem starts with a VOWEL. So, if you have suffixes like -는 or -고, they still keep the ㅂ.
돕다 [dop-da] = to help
--> 돕 + -는 것 = 돕는 것
Irregularities in irregular verbs
Although the ㅂ irregular rule is applied to most verbs that have ㅂ in them, some verbs do not follow this rule.
- 입다 [ip-da] = to wear
- 잡다 [jap-da] = to catch
- 씹다 [ssip-da] = to bite
- 좁다 [job-da] = to be narrow
- 넓다 [neol-tta] = to be wide
These words still keep their ㅂ in front of vowels.
입다 --> 입어요 (Not 이워요)
좁다 --> 좁아요 (Not 조아요)
1. 이 문제는 어려워요.
[i mun-je-neun eo-ryeo-wo-yo.]
= This problem is difficult.
2. 이거 너무 귀여워요.
[i-geo neo-mu gwi-yeo-wo-yo.]
= This is so cute.
3. 서울은 겨울에 정말 추워요.
[han-gu-geun gyeo-eu-re jeong-mal chu-wo-yo.]
= In Seoul, it’s really cold in the winter.
4. TTMIK에서 공부하면, 한국어 공부가 쉬워요.
[TTMIK-e-seo gong-bu-ha-myeon, han-gu-geo gong-bu-ga swi-wo-yo.]
= If you study at TTMIK, studying Korean is easy.