Level 3 Korean Grammar

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1

Too much, Very / 너무

2

Linking Verbs with -고

3

In front of, Behind, On top of, Under, Next to / 앞에, 옆에, 위에, 밑에, 뒤에

4

Shall we? / I wonder / -(으)ㄹ까요?

5

Approximately, About / 쯤, 약, 정도

6

Future Tenses / -(으)ㄹ 거예요 vs -(으)ㄹ게요

7

Linking Verbs With -아/어/여서

8

To look like, To seem like / 같아요

9

To seem like, To look like (with verbs) / -ㄴ 것 같아요

10

Before -ing / -기 전에

11

ㅂ irregular / ㅂ 불규칙

12

But still, Nevertheless / 그래도

13

Making Adjectives / Descriptive Verbs + -ㄴ 명사

14

Making Adjectives / Action Verbs + -는/(으)ㄴ/(으)ㄹ + 명사

15

Well then, In that case, If so / 그러면, 그럼

16

Let’s / -아/어/여요 (청유형)

17

In order to, For the sake of / 위하다, 위해, 위해서

18

Nothing but, Only / 밖에 + 부정형

19

After -ing / 다음에

20

Even if, Even though / -아/어/여도

21

Linking Verbs with -는데 / noun + -인데, adjective + -ㄴ데

22

Maybe I might… / -(으)ㄹ 수도 있어요

23

Word Builder 1 / 학(學)

24

르 irregular / 르 불규칙

25

Verb Ending / -네요

26

ㄷ irregular / ㄷ 불규칙

27

Politeness Levels / 반말 and 존댓말

28

“Let’s” in casual language / 반말

29

ㅅ irregular / ㅅ 불규칙

30

Word Builder 2 / 실(室)

31

Test Your Korean

Making Adjectives / Descriptive Verbs + -ㄴ 명사

Today in this lesson, we are looking at how to make adjectives out of Korean verbs. In Korean, all the “adjectives” are basically “descriptive verbs”.

Korean and English are different in many ways, but one of the key differences is that in Korean, “adjectives” also have a verb form. For example, if you say “beautiful” in English, it is an adjective and you can look it up in the dictionary in that way. In Korean, however, you can only find 예쁘다[ye-ppeu-da] in the dictionary, which is in the verb form and means “to be beautiful.” You cannot find 예쁜 [ye-ppeun], the adjective form of 예쁘다 (beautiful), in the dictionary.


Therefore, all the adjectives in English have to be in the “to be + adjective” form in order to mean the same thing as the Korean descriptive verbs.


Ex)

싸다 [ssa-da]

--> It does NOT mean “cheap,” it means “to be cheap.”


바쁘다 [ba-ppeu-da]

--> It does NOT mean “busy,” it means “to be busy”.


맛있다 [ma-sit-da]

→ It does NOT mean “delicious,” it means “to be delicious.”


Since the “adjectives” are presented in the form of “descriptive verbs” in Korean, you can conjugate them just like other “action verbs” whereas the adjectives never change forms. For example, if you say “It is fun,” “It was fun,” or “It will be fun” in English, the word “fun” does not change its form. But in Korean, since the descriptive verbs are conjugated, you change 재미있다 [jae-mi-it-da] to 재미있어요 [jae-mi-i-sseo-yo] (present tense), 재미있었어요 [jae-mi-i-sseo-sseo-yo] (past tense), and 재미있을 거예요 [jae-mi-i-sseul geo-ye-yo] (future tense). 


What if you want to use them as adjectives?


Good question. When you want to use descriptive verbs in the adjective form, you need to change them to the -(으)ㄴ form.

- Verb stems ending with a vowel + -ㄴ

- Verb stems ending with a consonant + -은


Ex)

작다 [jak-da] = to be small

--> 작 + -은 = 작은 [ja-geun] = small

→ 작은 집 [ja-geun jip] = a small house


빠르다 [ppa-reu-da] = to be fast

--> 빠르 + -ㄴ = 빠른 [ppa-reun] = fast

→ 빠른 차 [ppa-reun cha] = a fast car


조용하다 [jo-yong-ha-da] = to be quiet

--> 조용하 + -ㄴ = 조용한 [jo-yong-han] = quiet

→ 조용한 방 [jo-yong-han bang] = a quiet room


비싸다 [bi-ssa-da] = to be expensive

--> 비싸 + -ㄴ = 비싼 [bi-ssan] = expensive

→ 비싼 컴퓨터 [bi-ssan keom-pyu-teo]


Exceptions

하얗다 --> 하얀 [ha-yan] = white [NOT 하얗은]

그렇다 --> 그런 [geu-reon] = such [NOT 그렇은]

달다 --> 단 [dan] = sweet [NOT 달은]


Common Mistake

Many people make the mistake of trying to say “to be (이에요)” + “adjective” just like in English.


예쁜 이에요 ( x )

비싼 이에요 ( x )


This is incorrect. Since all “adjectives” in Korean are “descriptive verbs,” you need to conjugate them like verbs:


예쁘다 --> 예뻐요 ( o )

비싸다 --> 비싸요 ( o )


Sample sentences

1. 좋은 아이디어예요.

[jo-eun a-i-di-eo-ye-yo.]

= It’s a good idea.


2. 이상한 사람이에요.

[i-sang-han sa-ra-mi-e-yo.]

= He’s a strange person.


3. 더 작은 가방 있어요?

[deo ja-geun ga-bang i-sseo-yo?]

= Do you have a smaller bag?


4. 차가운 커피 마시고 싶어요.

[cha-ga-un keo-pi ma-si-go si-peo-yo.]

= I want to drink some cold coffee.


5. 나쁜 사람이에요.

[na-ppeun sa-ra-mi-e-yo]

= He is a bad person.

Today in this lesson, we are looking at how to make adjectives out of Korean verbs. In Korean, all the “adjectives” are basically “descriptive verbs”.
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