Level 3 Korean Grammar

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1

Too much, Very / 너무

2

Linking Verbs with -고

3

In front of, Behind, On top of, Under, Next to / 앞에, 옆에, 위에, 밑에, 뒤에

4

Shall we? / I wonder / -(으)ㄹ까요?

5

Approximately, About / 쯤, 약, 정도

6

Future Tenses / -(으)ㄹ 거예요 vs -(으)ㄹ게요

7

Linking Verbs With -아/어/여서

8

To look like, To seem like / 같아요

9

To seem like, To look like (with verbs) / -ㄴ 것 같아요

10

Before -ing / -기 전에

11

ㅂ irregular / ㅂ 불규칙

12

But still, Nevertheless / 그래도

13

Making Adjectives / Descriptive Verbs + -ㄴ 명사

14

Making Adjectives / Action Verbs + -는/(으)ㄴ/(으)ㄹ + 명사

15

Well then, In that case, If so / 그러면, 그럼

16

Let’s / -아/어/여요 (청유형)

17

In order to, For the sake of / 위하다, 위해, 위해서

18

Nothing but, Only / 밖에 + 부정형

19

After -ing / 다음에

20

Even if, Even though / -아/어/여도

21

Linking Verbs with -는데 / noun + -인데, adjective + -ㄴ데

22

Maybe I might… / -(으)ㄹ 수도 있어요

23

Word Builder 1 / 학(學)

24

르 irregular / 르 불규칙

25

Verb Ending / -네요

26

ㄷ irregular / ㄷ 불규칙

27

Politeness Levels / 반말 and 존댓말

28

“Let’s” in casual language / 반말

29

ㅅ irregular / ㅅ 불규칙

30

Word Builder 2 / 실(室)

31

Test Your Korean

Making Adjectives / Action Verbs + -는/(으)ㄴ/(으)ㄹ + 명사

안녕하세요 ^^! We are back with another lesson on making adjectives out of verbs in Korean. And today, we are looking at how to change action verbs into adjectives. Basically when you add the suffix -는 after a verb stem, it becomes an adjective that can modify a noun.

In the previous lesson, we looked at how to conjugate descriptive verbs to make adjectives in Korean. You are now familiar with the fact that Korean and English have different systems when it comes to using adjectives. But that’s not it. In this lesson, let us look at how to make adjectives out of verbs.

Again, “adjectives” are a part of speech that modify the nouns (usually) in front of them (i.e. “good” in “good idea” and “awesome” in “awesome music.”) And in Korean, not only can descriptive verbs be used as adjectives, or more precisely, but also “action verbs” can used in the form of adjectives.


Example of descriptive verbs used as adjectives

Nice person (nice + person)

= descriptive verb 좋다 + 사람 = 좋은 사람


Difficult game (difficult + game)

= descriptive verb 어렵다 + 게임 = 어려운 게임


Examples of action verbs used as adjectives

노래하는 사람 [no-rae-ha-neun sa-ram]

= 노래하다 (to sing) + 사람 (person)

= (the/a) person who sings


좋아하는 책 [jo-a-ha-neun chaek]

= 좋아하다 (to like) + 책 (book)

= (the/a) book that I like

---> book who likes ( x )


As you can see above, when verbs are changed into adjectives, the meaning can depend on the context. Your job is to know that the adjective is somehow modifying the noun, and from the overall context, figure out what the adjective part means.


Conjugation

: Verb stem + -는


Ex)

가다 [ga-da] = to go

Adjective form: 가는 [ga-neun]


자다 [ja-da] = to sleep

Adjective form: 자는 [ja-neun]


Verb stems ending with ㄹ drop the ㄹ and are followed by -는


Ex)

열다 [yeol-da] = to open

Adjective form: 여는 [yeo-neun]


불다 [bul-da] = to blow

Adjective form: 부는 [bu-neun]


The adjective part in certain sentences can be longer than just one word.


Ex)

좋아하다 [jo-a-ha-da] = to like; to love

Adjective form: 좋아하는 [jo-a-ha-neun]


좋아하는 책 = a book that I/you/they/someone like(s)


내가(제가) 좋아하는 책 = a book that I like

(Here, “내가 좋아하는” is the adjective part.)


내가(제가) 안 좋아하는 책 = a book that I don’t like

(Here, “내가(제가) 안 좋아하는 책” is the adjective part.)


Depending on the context and the use of particles, the entire meaning can change.


Now you know that 좋아하는 is the adjective form of 좋아하다 and that it means “that I/

someone like(s).” However, the meaning can change depending on which particle is used.


Ex)

좋아하는 사람 [jo-a-ha-neun sa-ram]

= someone that someone likes

= someone I like


민지가 좋아하는 사람 [min-ji-ga jo-a-ha-neun sa-ram]

= someone that Minji likes


민지를 좋아하는 사람 [min-ji-reul jo-a-ha-neun sa-ram]

= someone that likes Minji


Sample sentences

1. 이 노래는 제가 좋아하는 노래예요.

[i no-rae-neun je-ga jo-a-ha-neun no-rae-ye-yo.]

= This song is a song that I like.


2. 자주 먹는 한국 음식 있어요?

[ja-ju meok-neun han-guk eum-sik i-sseo-yo?]

= Is there a Korean food that you eat often?


3. 자주 가는 카페 있어요?

[ja-ju ga-neun ka-pe i-sseo-yo?] 

= Is there a cafe that you go to often?


4. 요즘 좋아하는 가수는 누구예요?

[yo-jeum jo-a-ha-neun ga-su-neun nu-gu-ye-yo?]

= Which singer do you like these days?


5. 요즘 공부하고 있는 외국어는 일본어예요.

[yo-jeum gong-bu-ha-go it-neun oe-gu-geo-neun il-bo-neo-ye-yo.]

= The foreign language I am studying these days is Japanese.


6. 눈이 오는 날에는 영화 보고 싶어요.

[nu-ni o-neun na-re-neun yeong-hwa bo-go si-peo-yo.]

= On a day when it snows, I want to see a movie.


7. 저기 있는 사람, 아는 사람이에요?

[jeo-gi it-neun sa-ram, a-neun sa-ra-mi-e-yo?]

= That person who is over there, is it someone that you know?


8. 배고픈 사람 (있어요)?

[bae-go-peun sa-ram (i-sseo-yo)?]

= Anybody (who is) hungry?

안녕하세요 ^^! We are back with another lesson on making adjectives out of verbs in Korean. And today, we are looking at how to change action verbs into adjectives. Basically when you add the suffix -는 after a verb stem, it becomes an adjective that can modify a noun.
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