Too much, Very / 너무
Linking Verbs with -고
In front of, Behind, On top of, Under, Next to / 앞에, 옆에, 위에, 밑에, 뒤에
Shall we? / I wonder / -(으)ㄹ까요?
Approximately, About / 쯤, 약, 정도
Future Tenses / -(으)ㄹ 거예요 vs -(으)ㄹ게요
Linking Verbs With -아/어/여서
To look like, To seem like / 같아요
To seem like, To look like (with verbs) / -ㄴ 것 같아요
Before -ing / -기 전에
ㅂ irregular / ㅂ 불규칙
But still, Nevertheless / 그래도
Making Adjectives / Descriptive Verbs + -ㄴ 명사
Making Adjectives / Action Verbs + -는/(으)ㄴ/(으)ㄹ + 명사
Well then, In that case, If so / 그러면, 그럼
Let’s / -아/어/여요 (청유형)
In order to, For the sake of / 위하다, 위해, 위해서
Nothing but, Only / 밖에 + 부정형
After -ing / 다음에
Even if, Even though / -아/어/여도
Linking Verbs with -는데 / noun + -인데, adjective + -ㄴ데
Maybe I might… / -(으)ㄹ 수도 있어요
Word Builder 1 / 학(學)
르 irregular / 르 불규칙
Verb Ending / -네요
ㄷ irregular / ㄷ 불규칙
Politeness Levels / 반말 and 존댓말
“Let’s” in casual language / 반말
ㅅ irregular / ㅅ 불규칙
Word Builder 2 / 실(室)
Test Your Korean
You have already learned about irregularities which occur with ㅂ and 르. Let’s build upon that knowledge and add in irregularities that sometimes happen with ㄷ.
How ㄷ-irregular works:
When the Korean letter ㄷ is the 받침 [pat-chim] (the final consonant at the end of a syllable) of a verb stem and is followed by a vowel, ㄷ is changed to ㄹ.
Some verbs follow this rule, and some do not.
Examples of ㄷ irregular verbs:
- 듣다 [deut-da] = to listen
- 걷다 [geot-da] = to walk
- 묻다 [mut-da] = to ask
- 싣다 [sit-da] = to load
- 깨닫다 [kkae-dat-da] = to realize
For these verbs, ㄷ changes to ㄹ when followed by a vowel:
- 듣 + 어서 --> 들어서 [deu-reo-seo]
- 걷 + 어요 --> 걸어요 [geo-reo-yo]
- 묻 + 으면 --> 물으면 [mu-reu-myeon]
- 싣 + 을 거예요 --> 실을 거예요 [si-reul geo-ye-yo]
- 깨닫 + 았어요 --> 깨달았어요 [kkae-da-ra-sseo-yo]
Examples of verbs that do NOT follow this rule:
- 받다 [bat-da] = to receive
- 묻다 [mut-da] = to bury
- 닫다 [dat-da] = to close
- 믿다 [mit-da] = to believe
For these verbs, you keep 받침 as ㄷ, even when it’s followed by a vowel:
- 받 + 아서 = 받아서 [ba-da-seo]
- 묻 + 어요 = 묻어요 [mu-deo-yo]
- 닫 + 으면 = 닫으면 [da-deu-myeon]
- 믿 + 어요 = 믿어요 [mi-deo-yo]
** Although 묻다 (to ask) and 묻다 (to bury) are spelled the same way, they are conjugated differently and you can only determine the meaning from the context of the sentence.
I ask. = 물어요.
I bury. = 묻어요.
Usage examples of ㄷ irregular verbs
듣다 [deut-da] = to listen
--> 듣고 있어요 [deut-go i-sseo-yo] = I am listening. (ㄷ doesn’t change because -고 begins with a consonant.)
--> 들었어요 [deu-reo-sseo-yo] = I heard. (ㄷ changes to ㄹ because -었 starts with a vowel.)
걷다 [geot-da] = to walk
--> 걷는 것 좋아해요 [geot-neun geot jo-a-hae-yo] = I like walking. (ㄷ doesn’t change because -는 starts with a consonant.)
--> 한 시간 걸었어요 [han si-gan geo-reo-sseo-yo] = I walked for an hour. (ㄷ changes to ㄹ because -었 starts with a vowel.)
1. 어디에서 들었어요?
= Where did you hear that?
2. 많이 걸었는데, 안 피곤해요.
[ma-ni geo-reot-neun-de, an pi-go-nae-yo.]
= I walked a lot, but I am not tired.
3. 그 이야기를 믿어요?
[geu i-ya-gi-reul mi-deo-yo?]
= Do you believe that story?
4. 물어도 대답이 없어요.
[mu-reo-do dae-da-bi eop-sseo-yo.]
= Even if I ask, there is no answer.