Level 3 Korean Grammar

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1

Too much, Very / 너무

2

Linking Verbs with -고

3

In front of, Behind, On top of, Under, Next to / 앞에, 옆에, 위에, 밑에, 뒤에

4

Shall we? / I wonder / -(으)ㄹ까요?

5

Approximately, About / 쯤, 약, 정도

6

Future Tenses / -(으)ㄹ 거예요 vs -(으)ㄹ게요

7

Linking Verbs With -아/어/여서

8

To look like, To seem like / 같아요

9

To seem like, To look like (with verbs) / -ㄴ 것 같아요

10

Before -ing / -기 전에

11

ㅂ irregular / ㅂ 불규칙

12

But still, Nevertheless / 그래도

13

Making Adjectives / Descriptive Verbs + -ㄴ 명사

14

Making Adjectives / Action Verbs + -는/(으)ㄴ/(으)ㄹ + 명사

15

Well then, In that case, If so / 그러면, 그럼

16

Let’s / -아/어/여요 (청유형)

17

In order to, For the sake of / 위하다, 위해, 위해서

18

Nothing but, Only / 밖에 + 부정형

19

After -ing / 다음에

20

Even if, Even though / -아/어/여도

21

Linking Verbs with -는데 / noun + -인데, adjective + -ㄴ데

22

Maybe I might… / -(으)ㄹ 수도 있어요

23

Word Builder 1 / 학(學)

24

르 irregular / 르 불규칙

25

Verb Ending / -네요

26

ㄷ irregular / ㄷ 불규칙

27

Politeness Levels / 반말 and 존댓말

28

“Let’s” in casual language / 반말

29

ㅅ irregular / ㅅ 불규칙

30

Word Builder 2 / 실(室)

31

Test Your Korean

ㄷ irregular / ㄷ 불규칙

안녕하세요! Welcome to another lesson about irregularities in Korean! Today we are looking at the ㄷ irregular. Unlike the ㅂ irregular, ㄷ irregular has much more exceptions so it can be tricky, but don’t worry! After listening to this lesson, practice with us through comments!

You have already learned about irregularities which occur with ㅂ and 르. Let’s build upon that knowledge and add in irregularities that sometimes happen with ㄷ.


How ㄷ-irregular works:

When the Korean letter ㄷ is the 받침 [pat-chim] (the final consonant at the end of a syllable) of a verb stem and is followed by a vowel, ㄷ is changed to ㄹ.


Some verbs follow this rule, and some do not.


Examples of ㄷ irregular verbs:

- 듣다 [deut-da] = to listen

- 걷다 [geot-da] = to walk

- 묻다 [mut-da] = to ask

- 싣다 [sit-da] = to load

- 깨닫다 [kkae-dat-da] = to realize


For these verbs, ㄷ changes to ㄹ when followed by a vowel:

- 듣 + 어서 --> 들어서 [deu-reo-seo]

- 걷 + 어요 --> 걸어요 [geo-reo-yo]

- 묻 + 으면 --> 물으면 [mu-reu-myeon]

- 싣 + 을 거예요 --> 실을 거예요 [si-reul geo-ye-yo]

- 깨닫 + 았어요 --> 깨달았어요 [kkae-da-ra-sseo-yo]


Examples of verbs that do NOT follow this rule:

- 받다 [bat-da] = to receive

- 묻다 [mut-da] = to bury

- 닫다 [dat-da] = to close

- 믿다 [mit-da] = to believe


For these verbs, you keep 받침 as ㄷ, even when it’s followed by a vowel:

- 받 + 아서 = 받아서 [ba-da-seo]

- 묻 + 어요 = 묻어요 [mu-deo-yo]

- 닫 + 으면 = 닫으면 [da-deu-myeon]

- 믿 + 어요 = 믿어요 [mi-deo-yo]

** Although 묻다 (to ask) and 묻다 (to bury) are spelled the same way, they are conjugated differently and you can only determine the meaning from the context of the sentence. 


Ex) 

I ask. = 물어요. 

I bury. = 묻어요.


Usage examples of ㄷ irregular verbs


1)

듣다 [deut-da] = to listen

--> 듣고 있어요 [deut-go i-sseo-yo] = I am listening. (ㄷ doesn’t change because -고 begins with a consonant.)

--> 들었어요 [deu-reo-sseo-yo] = I heard. (ㄷ changes to ㄹ because -었 starts with a vowel.)


2)

걷다 [geot-da] = to walk

--> 걷는 것 좋아해요 [geot-neun geot jo-a-hae-yo] = I like walking. (ㄷ doesn’t change because -는 starts with a consonant.)

--> 한 시간 걸었어요 [han si-gan geo-reo-sseo-yo] = I walked for an hour. (ㄷ changes to ㄹ because -었 starts with a vowel.)


Sample Sentences

1. 어디에서 들었어요?

[eo-di-e-seo deu-reo-sseo-yo?]

= Where did you hear that?


2. 많이 걸었는데, 안 피곤해요.

[ma-ni geo-reot-neun-de, an pi-go-nae-yo.]

= I walked a lot, but I am not tired.


3. 그 이야기를 믿어요?

[geu i-ya-gi-reul mi-deo-yo?]

= Do you believe that story?


4. 물어도 대답이 없어요.

[mu-reo-do dae-da-bi eop-sseo-yo.]

= Even if I ask, there is no answer.

안녕하세요! Welcome to another lesson about irregularities in Korean! Today we are looking at the ㄷ irregular. Unlike the ㅂ irregular, ㄷ irregular has much more exceptions so it can be tricky, but don’t worry! After listening to this lesson, practice with us through comments!
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