Too much, Very / 너무
Linking Verbs with -고
In front of, Behind, On top of, Under, Next to / 앞에, 옆에, 위에, 밑에, 뒤에
Shall we? / I wonder / -(으)ㄹ까요?
Approximately, About / 쯤, 약, 정도
Future Tenses / -(으)ㄹ 거예요 vs -(으)ㄹ게요
Linking Verbs With -아/어/여서
To look like, To seem like / 같아요
To seem like, To look like (with verbs) / -ㄴ 것 같아요
Before -ing / -기 전에
ㅂ irregular / ㅂ 불규칙
But still, Nevertheless / 그래도
Making Adjectives / Descriptive Verbs + -ㄴ 명사
Making Adjectives / Action Verbs + -는/(으)ㄴ/(으)ㄹ + 명사
Well then, In that case, If so / 그러면, 그럼
Let’s / -아/어/여요 (청유형)
In order to, For the sake of / 위하다, 위해, 위해서
Nothing but, Only / 밖에 + 부정형
After -ing / 다음에
Even if, Even though / -아/어/여도
Linking Verbs with -는데 / noun + -인데, adjective + -ㄴ데
Maybe I might… / -(으)ㄹ 수도 있어요
Word Builder 1 / 학(學)
르 irregular / 르 불규칙
Verb Ending / -네요
ㄷ irregular / ㄷ 불규칙
Politeness Levels / 반말 and 존댓말
“Let’s” in casual language / 반말
ㅅ irregular / ㅅ 불규칙
Word Builder 2 / 실(室)
Test Your Korean
Let’s look at how to describe the relative location of things and people.
First of all, let’s go over how to ask where something or someone is. The word for “where” is 어디 [eo-di] and the word for “to be” is 있다 [it-da]. For present tense, you can ask “어디 있어요?” [eo-di i-sseo-yo?], or if you want to be more accurate, you can add the location marking particle -에 [-e] and say “어디에 있어요?” [eo-di-e i-sseo-yo?]
어디 있어요? [eo-di i-sseo-yo?]
= 어디에 있어요? [eo-di-e i-sseo-yo?]
= Where is it? / Where are you? / Where are they?
어디 있었어요? [eo-di i-sseo-sseo-yo?]
= 어디에 있었어요? [eo-di-e i-sseo-sseo-yo?]
= Where were you? / Where have you been?
어디 있을 거예요? [eo-di i-sseul geo-ye-yo?]
= 어디에 있을 거예요? [eo-di-e i-sseul geo-ye-yo?]
= Where will you be? / Where are you going to be?
In order to give a response to this question, you need to know these five one-syllable words:
앞 [ap] = front
뒤 [dwi] = back
옆 [yeop] = side
위 [wi] = top
밑 [mit] = bottom
To use these words with other words, you add 에 [-e], the location marking particle, to them.
앞에 [a-pe] = in front of
뒤에 [dwi-e] = behind
옆에 [yeo-pe] = beside, next to
위에 [wi-e] = over, on top of
밑에 [mi-te] = under, below
In English, these words come BEFORE the words that they modify, but in Korean, they come AFTER the words.
자동차 [ ja-dong-cha] = car, automobile
자동차 앞에 = in front of the car
자동차 뒤에 = behind the car
자동차 옆에 = beside the car; next to the car
자동차 위에 = on the car; on top of the car
자동차 밑에 = under the car
Combined with 있다:
자동차 앞에 있어요. = It’s in front of the car.
자동차 뒤에 있어요. = It’s behind the car.
자동차 옆에 있어요. = It’s next to the car.
자동차 위에 있어요. = It’s on top of the car.
자동차 밑에 있어요. = It’s under the car.
If you remember from our previous lesson (Level 1, Lesson 18) -에 [-e] is only used with the status of a person or an object. When you want to express actions and behaviors that are happening, you need to use -에서 [-e-seo].
Q: 친구를 어디에서 만날 거예요?
[chin-gu-reul eo-di-e-seo man-nal geo-ye-yo?]
= Where are you going to meet (your) friends?
**은행 [eun-haeng] = bank
A: 은행 앞에서 만날 거예요.
[eun-haeng a-pe-seo man-nal geo-ye-yo.]
= I’m going to meet (them) in front of the bank.
A: 은행 뒤에서 만날 거예요.
[eun-haeng dwi-e-seo man-nal geo-ye-yo.]
= I’m going to meet (them) behind the bank.
A: 은행 옆에서 만날 거예요.
[eun-haeng yeo-pe-seo man-nal geo-ye-yo.]
= I’m going to meet (them) beside the bank.
소파 위에서 자고 있어요.
[so-pa wi-e-seo ja-go i-sseo-yo.]
= I’m sleeping on the sofa.
나무 밑에서 책을 읽고 있어요.
[na-mu mi-te-seo chae-geul il-go i-sseo-yo.]
= I’m reading a book under the tree.
나무 뒤에 숨어 있었어요.
[na-mu dwi-e su-meo i-sseo-sseo-yo.]
= I have been hiding behind the tree.
문 앞에서 통화하고 있었어요.
[mun a-pe-seo tong-hwa-ha-go i-sseo-sseo-yo.]
= I was talking on the phone in front of the door.