Too much, Very / 너무
Linking Verbs with -고
In front of, Behind, On top of, Under, Next to / 앞에, 옆에, 위에, 밑에, 뒤에
Shall we? / I wonder / -(으)ㄹ까요?
Approximately, About / 쯤, 약, 정도
Future Tenses / -(으)ㄹ 거예요 vs -(으)ㄹ게요
Linking Verbs With -아/어/여서
To look like, To seem like / 같아요
To seem like, To look like (with verbs) / -ㄴ 것 같아요
Before -ing / -기 전에
ㅂ irregular / ㅂ 불규칙
But still, Nevertheless / 그래도
Making Adjectives / Descriptive Verbs + -ㄴ 명사
Making Adjectives / Action Verbs + -는/(으)ㄴ/(으)ㄹ + 명사
Well then, In that case, If so / 그러면, 그럼
Let’s / -아/어/여요 (청유형)
In order to, For the sake of / 위하다, 위해, 위해서
Nothing but, Only / 밖에 + 부정형
After -ing / 다음에
Even if, Even though / -아/어/여도
Linking Verbs with -는데 / noun + -인데, adjective + -ㄴ데
Maybe I might… / -(으)ㄹ 수도 있어요
Word Builder 1 / 학(學)
르 irregular / 르 불규칙
Verb Ending / -네요
ㄷ irregular / ㄷ 불규칙
Politeness Levels / 반말 and 존댓말
“Let’s” in casual language / 반말
ㅅ irregular / ㅅ 불규칙
Word Builder 2 / 실(室)
Test Your Korean
Back in Lesson 2 of this level, we learned about the verb ending -고 [-go], which is used to connect independent clauses or actions together to form one sentence, but the two clauses do not necessarily have a strong logical relation to each other. In this lesson, we are covering the verb ending -아/어/여+서, but this particular ending connects two or more verbs in one sentence and can show a logical relationship between the verbs.
Do you remember the two conjunctions 그리고 and 그래서 from Level 2 Lesson 3? 그리고 [geu-ri-go] means “and,” and 그래서 [geu-rae-seo] means “therefore/so.” The verb ending -고 [-go] has the same meaning as 그리고 [geu-ri-go], and the verb ending -아/어/여+서 is similar in meaning to 그래서 [geu-rae-seo].
Let’s look at the construction and usages of -아/어/여+서 in more detail:
먹다 [meok-da] = to eat
먹 (verb stem) + 어서 = 먹어서 [meo-geo-seo]
만들다 [man-deul-da] = to make
만들 (verb stem) + 어서 = 만들어서 [man-deu-reo-seo]
하다 [ha-da] = to do
하 (verb stem) + 여서 = 해서 [hae-seo]
오다 [o-da] = to come
오 (verb stem) + 아서 = 와서 [wa-seo]
1. Reason + -아/어/여서 + result
2. An action + -아/어/여서 + another action that takes place after the first action
3. An action + -아/어/여서 + the purpose of or the plan after the action
4. Some fixed expressions
Reason + -아/어/여서 + result
비가 오다 (it rains) + 못 가다 (can’t go)
--> 비가 와서 못 가요. [bi-ga wa-seo mot ga-yo.] = It’s raining, so I can’t go.
--> 비가 와서 못 갔어요. [bi-ga wa-seo mot ga-sseo-yo.] = It rained, so I couldn’t go.
** Note that the tense was expressed only through the final verb.
오늘은 바빠요. (Today, I’m busy.) + 영화를 못 봐요. (I can’t see the movie.)
--> 오늘은 바빠서 영화를 못 봐요. [o-neu-reun ba-ppa-seo yeong-hwa-reul mot bwa-yo.]
= I’m busy today, so I can’t see the movie.
만나다 (to meet) + 반갑다 (to be glad to see someone)
--> 만나서 반갑습니다. [man-na-seo ban-gap-seum-ni-da]
= I met you, so I’m glad. = It’s nice to meet you.
--> 만나서 반가워요. [man-na-seo ban-ga-wo-yo]
= I’m pleased to meet you. (Less formal than the sentence above)
An action + -아/어/여서 + another action that takes place after the first action
공원에 가다 (to go to the park) + 책을 읽다 (to read a book)
--> 공원에 가서 책을 읽을 거예요. [gong-wo-ne ga-seo chae-geul il-geul geo-ye-yo.]
= I’m going to go to the park and read a book.
** Note: This does NOT mean “I’m going to the park, so I’m going to read a book.”
** Also note that the tense is expressed through the final verb here as well.
친구를 만나다 (to meet a friend) + 밥을 먹다 (to eat)
--> 친구를 만나서 밥을 먹었어요. [chin-gu-reul man-na-seo ba-beul meo-geo-sseo-yo.]
= I met a friend and ate together.
** Note that here, this sentence COULD mean that you met a friend so you ate together, but in most cases, it will mean that you met a friend AND THEN ate together after you met up with him/her.
--> 친구를 만나서 밥을 먹을 거예요. [chin-gu-reul man-na-seo ba-beul meo-geul geo-ye-yo.]
= I’m going to meet a friend and eat together.
An action + -아/어/여서 + the purpose of or the plan after the action.
돈을 모으다 (to save up, to save money) + 뭐 하다 (to do what)
--> 돈을 모아서 뭐 할 거예요? [do-neul mo-a-seo mwo hal geo-ye-yo?] = What are you going to do with the money you save up? (lit. You save up money and what will you do?)
케익을 사다 (to buy a cake) + 친구한테 주다 (to give to a friend)
--> 케익을 사서 친구한테 줄 거예요. [ke-i-geul sa-seo chin-gu-han-te jul geo-ye-yo.]
= I’m going to buy a cake to/and give it to a friend.
** Usage 3 is similar to Usage 2 because you are doing one thing after another, so it could be a linear action, and it could also be a purpose.
There are some fixed expressions that basically use the same -아/어/여서 structure in them but are not often used in other forms.
-에 따라서 [-e tta-ra-seo] = according to ~
Ex) 계획에 따라서 진행하겠습니다 [gye-hoe-ge tta-ra-seo ji-naeng-ha-ge-sseum-ni-da.]
= I’ll proceed according to the plan.
예를 들어서 [ye-reul deu-reo-seo] = for example
Ex) 예를 들어서, 이렇게 할 수 있어요. [ye-reul deu-reo-seo, i-reo-ke hal su i-sseo-yo.]
= For example, you can do it like this.
1. 한국에 가서 뭐 할 거예요? [han-gu-ge ga-seo mwo hal geo-ye-yo?]
= After you go to Korea, what are you going to do?
2. 서울에 와서 좋아요. [seo-u-re wa-seo jo-a-yo.]
= Since I came to Seoul, I’m glad.
= I’m glad to have come to Seoul.
3. 술을 너무 많이 마셔서 머리가 아파요.
[su-reul neo-mu ma-ni ma-syeo-seo meo-ri-ga a-pa-yo.]
= I drank too much, so my head is aching.
4. 비가 와서 집에 있었어요. [bi-ga wa-seo ji-be i-sseo-sseo-yo.]
= It rained, so I stayed at home.
5. 요즘에 바빠서 친구들을 못 만나요.
[yo-jeu-me ba-ppa-seo chin-gu-deu-reul mot man-na-yo.]
= These days I’m busy, so I can’t meet my friends.
6. 열심히 공부해서 장학금을 받을 거예요.
[yeol-si-mi gong-bu-hae-seo jang-hak-geu-meul ba-deul geo-ye-yo.]
= I’m going to study hard so I can get (and I will get) a scholarship.
7. 한국어가 너무 재미있어서 매일 공부하고 있어요.
[han-gu-geo-ga neo-mu jae-mi-i-sseo-seo mae-il gong-bu-ha-go i-sseo-yo.]
= Korean is so much fun that I’m studying it everyday.