Level 3 Korean Grammar

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1

Too much, Very / 너무

2

Linking Verbs with -고

3

In front of, Behind, On top of, Under, Next to / 앞에, 옆에, 위에, 밑에, 뒤에

4

Shall we? / I wonder / -(으)ㄹ까요?

5

Approximately, About / 쯤, 약, 정도

6

Future Tenses / -(으)ㄹ 거예요 vs -(으)ㄹ게요

7

Linking Verbs With -아/어/여서

8

To look like, To seem like / 같아요

9

To seem like, To look like (with verbs) / -ㄴ 것 같아요

10

Before -ing / -기 전에

11

ㅂ irregular / ㅂ 불규칙

12

But still, Nevertheless / 그래도

13

Making Adjectives / Descriptive Verbs + -ㄴ 명사

14

Making Adjectives / Action Verbs + -는/(으)ㄴ/(으)ㄹ + 명사

15

Well then, In that case, If so / 그러면, 그럼

16

Let’s / -아/어/여요 (청유형)

17

In order to, For the sake of / 위하다, 위해, 위해서

18

Nothing but, Only / 밖에 + 부정형

19

After -ing / 다음에

20

Even if, Even though / -아/어/여도

21

Linking Verbs with -는데 / noun + -인데, adjective + -ㄴ데

22

Maybe I might… / -(으)ㄹ 수도 있어요

23

Word Builder 1 / 학(學)

24

르 irregular / 르 불규칙

25

Verb Ending / -네요

26

ㄷ irregular / ㄷ 불규칙

27

Politeness Levels / 반말 and 존댓말

28

“Let’s” in casual language / 반말

29

ㅅ irregular / ㅅ 불규칙

30

Word Builder 2 / 실(室)

31

Test Your Korean

Linking Verbs With -아/어/여서

There are many different ways of linking verbs in one sentence in Korean, and we’ve already looked at how to use -고 [-go] through one of our previous lessons. Today, in this lesson, we are looking at how the verb ending -아/어/여서 works. After studying this lesson, you will feel that your sentence building skills in Korean have improved a lot! Have fun!

Back in Lesson 2 of this level, we learned about the verb ending -고 [-go], which is used to connect independent clauses or actions together to form one sentence, but the two clauses do not necessarily have a strong logical relation to each other. In this lesson, we are covering the verb ending -아/어/여+서, but this particular ending connects two or more verbs in one sentence and can show a logical relationship between the verbs. 

Do you remember the two conjunctions 그리고 and 그래서 from Level 2 Lesson 3? 그리고 [geu-ri-go] means “and,” and 그래서 [geu-rae-seo] means “therefore/so.” The verb ending -고 [-go] has the same meaning as 그리고 [geu-ri-go], and the verb ending -아/어/여+서 is similar in meaning to 그래서 [geu-rae-seo].

Let’s look at the construction and usages of -아/어/여+서 in more detail:

Construction

먹다 [meok-da] = to eat

먹 (verb stem) + 어서 = 먹어서 [meo-geo-seo]


만들다 [man-deul-da] = to make

만들 (verb stem) + 어서 = 만들어서 [man-deu-reo-seo]


하다 [ha-da] = to do

하 (verb stem) + 여서 = 해서 [hae-seo]


오다 [o-da] = to come

오 (verb stem) + 아서 = 와서 [wa-seo]


Usages

1. Reason + -아/어/여서 + result

2. An action + -아/어/여서 + another action that takes place after the first action

3. An action + -아/어/여서 + the purpose of or the plan after the action

4. Some fixed expressions


Usage 1

Reason + -아/어/여서 + result


Ex)

비가 오다 (it rains) + 못 가다 (can’t go)

--> 비가 와서 못 가요. [bi-ga wa-seo mot ga-yo.] = It’s raining, so I can’t go.

--> 비가 와서 못 갔어요. [bi-ga wa-seo mot ga-sseo-yo.] = It rained, so I couldn’t go.

** Note that the tense was expressed only through the final verb.


오늘은 바빠요. (Today, I’m busy.) + 영화를 못 봐요. (I can’t see the movie.)

--> 오늘은 바빠서 영화를 못 봐요. [o-neu-reun ba-ppa-seo yeong-hwa-reul mot bwa-yo.] 

= I’m busy today, so I can’t see the movie.

 

만나다 (to meet) + 반갑다 (to be glad to see someone) 

--> 만나서 반갑습니다. [man-na-seo ban-gap-seum-ni-da] 

= I met you, so I’m glad. = It’s nice to meet you.

--> 만나서 반가워요. [man-na-seo ban-ga-wo-yo] 

= I’m pleased to meet you. (Less formal than the sentence above)


Usage 2

An action + -아/어/여서 + another action that takes place after the first action


Ex)

공원에 가다 (to go to the park) + 책을 읽다 (to read a book)

--> 공원에 가서 책을 읽을 거예요. [gong-wo-ne ga-seo chae-geul il-geul geo-ye-yo.] 

= I’m going to go to the park and read a book.

** Note: This does NOT mean “I’m going to the park, so I’m going to read a book.”

** Also note that the tense is expressed through the final verb here as well.


친구를 만나다 (to meet a friend) + 밥을 먹다 (to eat)

--> 친구를 만나서 밥을 먹었어요. [chin-gu-reul man-na-seo ba-beul meo-geo-sseo-yo.] 

= I met a friend and ate together.

** Note that here, this sentence COULD mean that you met a friend so you ate together, but in most cases, it will mean that you met a friend AND THEN ate together after you met up with him/her. 


--> 친구를 만나서 밥을 먹을 거예요. [chin-gu-reul man-na-seo ba-beul meo-geul geo-ye-yo.] 

= I’m going to meet a friend and eat together.


Usage 3

An action + -아/어/여서 + the purpose of or the plan after the action.


Ex)

돈을 모으다 (to save up, to save money) + 뭐 하다 (to do what)

--> 돈을 모아서 뭐 할 거예요? [do-neul mo-a-seo mwo hal geo-ye-yo?] = What are you going to do with the money you save up? (lit. You save up money and what will you do?)


케익을 사다 (to buy a cake) + 친구한테 주다 (to give to a friend)

--> 케익을 사서 친구한테 줄 거예요. [ke-i-geul sa-seo chin-gu-han-te jul geo-ye-yo.] 

= I’m going to buy a cake to/and give it to a friend.

** Usage 3 is similar to Usage 2 because you are doing one thing after another, so it could be a linear action, and it could also be a purpose.



Usage 4

Fixed expressions


There are some fixed expressions that basically use the same -아/어/여서 structure in them but are not often used in other forms.


-에 따라서 [-e tta-ra-seo] = according to ~


Ex) 계획에 따라서 진행하겠습니다 [gye-hoe-ge tta-ra-seo ji-naeng-ha-ge-sseum-ni-da.] 

= I’ll proceed according to the plan.


예를 들어서 [ye-reul deu-reo-seo] = for example


Ex) 예를 들어서, 이렇게 할 수 있어요. [ye-reul deu-reo-seo, i-reo-ke hal su i-sseo-yo.] 

= For example, you can do it like this. 



Sample sentences

1. 한국에 가서 뭐 할 거예요? [han-gu-ge ga-seo mwo hal geo-ye-yo?]

= After you go to Korea, what are you going to do?


2. 서울에 와서 좋아요. [seo-u-re wa-seo jo-a-yo.]

= Since I came to Seoul, I’m glad.

= I’m glad to have come to Seoul.


3. 술을 너무 많이 마셔서 머리가 아파요. 

[su-reul neo-mu ma-ni ma-syeo-seo meo-ri-ga a-pa-yo.]

= I drank too much, so my head is aching.


4. 비가 와서 집에 있었어요. [bi-ga wa-seo ji-be i-sseo-sseo-yo.]

= It rained, so I stayed at home.


5. 요즘에 바빠서 친구들을 못 만나요. 

[yo-jeu-me ba-ppa-seo chin-gu-deu-reul mot man-na-yo.]

= These days I’m busy, so I can’t meet my friends.


6. 열심히 공부해서 장학금을 받을 거예요. 

[yeol-si-mi gong-bu-hae-seo jang-hak-geu-meul ba-deul geo-ye-yo.]

= I’m going to study hard so I can get (and I will get) a scholarship.


7. 한국어가 너무 재미있어서 매일 공부하고 있어요. 

[han-gu-geo-ga neo-mu jae-mi-i-sseo-seo mae-il gong-bu-ha-go i-sseo-yo.]

= Korean is so much fun that I’m studying it everyday.

There are many different ways of linking verbs in one sentence in Korean, and we’ve already looked at how to use -고 [-go] through one of our previous lessons. Today, in this lesson, we are looking at how the verb ending -아/어/여서 works. After studying this lesson, you will feel that your sentence building skills in Korean have improved a lot! Have fun!
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