Level 5 Korean Grammar

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1

Almost did / -(으)ㄹ 뻔했다, 할 뻔했다

2

-시- (honorific) / -시-, 하시다

3

Good work / 수고

4

I guess, I assume / -나 보다

5

I guess, I assume – Part 2 / -(으)ㄴ가 보다

6

Word builder 6 / 문(文)

7

As soon as… / -자마자, 하자마자

8

It is about to …, I am planning to … / -(으)려고 하다, 하려고 하다

9

While I was doing, and then / -다가, 하다가

10

(To say) that S + be / -(이)라고 + nouns

11

Sentence Building Drill #3

12

Noun + -(이)라는 + Noun / Someone that is called ABC / Someone who says s/he is XYZ

13

Word Builder lesson 7 / 회 (會)

14

Since, Because, As / -(으)니까

15

At least, Instead, It might not be the best but… / -(이)라도

16

Narrative Present Tense in Korean / -(ㄴ/는)다

17

Quoting someone in Korean / -(ㄴ/는)다는, -(ㄴ/는)다고

18

Whether or not / -(으)ㄴ/는지

19

To tell someone to do something / Verb + -(으)라고 + Verb

20

Sentence Building Drill #4

21

Word Contractions - Part 3 (이거를 –> 이걸)

22

Word builder 8 / 식 (食)

23

It seems like … / I assume … / -(으)려나 보다

24

Not A But B, Don’t do THIS but do THAT / 말고, -지 말고

25

Compared to, Relatively / -에 비해서 -ㄴ/은/는 편이다 /

26

Instead of … / 대신에, -는 대신에

27

You know, Isn’t it, You see…, Come on… / -잖아(요)

28

To have no other choice but to… / -(으)ㄹ 수밖에 없다

29

they said that they had done …, they said that they would … / -았/었/였다고, -(으)ㄹ 거라고

30

Sentence Building Drill #5

31

Test Your Korean – Level 5 Dialogue in 100% Korean

(To say) that S + be / -(이)라고 + nouns

안녕하세요. Have you ever intruduced yourself in Korean? There are a lot of different ways to introduce yourself in Korean and one of them is “저는 _(name)_ (이)라고 해요.”

In this TalkToMeInKorean lesson, you will learn how to use -(이)라고.

-(이)라고 is a way to use direct speech or indirect/reported speech in Korean. In English, an example of this would be “She said, “I am a teacher”” or “Charlene said she is a teacher”.  


As a way to quote what someone else said, -(이)라고 is typically not used by itself, but rather with words related to speaking, such as 말하다 (to speak), 이야기하다 (to talk), and 대답하다 (to answer). It can also be used with 하다, which in this case means “to say”, “to tell”, “to talk”, etc. 


Before taking a look at how to form a sentence using -(이)라고 말하다/이야기하다/대답하다, please note that -(이)라고 is used ONLY when you want to say “(he/she/they) said that (something) is + NOUN”. When you want to say “(he/she/they) said that (something) + VERB”, you use different structures which will be covered in a future lesson.


Conjugation:

Noun (or the last word from a direct quotation) ending with a consonant + -이라고

Noun (or the last word from a direct quotation) ending with a vowel + -라고


Ex)

하늘 (sky) + 이라고 = 하늘이라고

나무 (tree) + 라고 = 나무라고


Meaning

하늘 = sky

하늘이라고 = (that it is) sky, “sky”


이거 = this

이거라고 = (that it is) this, “this”


Use with other words

It was mentioned in the beginning of this lesson that -(이)라고 is typically used with words such as 말하다, 이야기하다, 대답하다, and 하다 to indicate speaking or reporting of some type. 


Ex)

이거라고 말하다

= to say that it is this, to say that this is it


학생이라고 말하다 

= to say that he/she is a student


“감사합니다”라고 말하다

= to say “감사합니다”


In very casual conversation, the use of 말하다 is not necessary. It can be easily replaced by 하다 and still convey the same meaning. Compare the three examples below with the ones you just read. 


이거라고 하다

= to say that it is this, to say that this is it

학생이라고 하다

= to say that he/she is a student


“감사합니다”라고 하다

= to say “감사합니다”


The meaning is the exact same, right? It makes things a little easier, but please remember to ONLY use this in casual conversation! 


So far, you have practiced how to say “to say that (something/someone) is + NOUN” in Korean, but there was no mention of the “(something/someone)” part. For example, the sentence from above, 학생이라고 말하다, was translated as “to say that he/she is a student”, but there was no mention of who “he/she” was in the Korean sentence. This works either when the subject of the indirect quotation is the same as the subject of the main verb, “to say”, or when the subject is so obvious in the context that it does not need to be mentioned. 


Stating the SUBJECT

If you want to or need to clarify the subject of the indirect quotation, you can place the subject before ‘NOUN + -(이)라고 말하다/이야기하다/대답하다’. The subject marking particles, -이/가, can be omitted.


Ex)

학생이라고 말하다 = to say that (he/she) is a student

* It is not known who is a student without any context.


이 사람이 학생이라고 말하다 = to say that this person is a student

* With this sentence, “this person” is the subject and is a student, but who said that this person is a student is still unknown. 

** If you write/say it as 이 사람이 ‘학생’이라고 말했어요, it becomes a direct quotation with the meaning of “this person said ‘학생’”. 


경은 선생님이 이 사람 학생이라고 했어요. = Teacher Kyeong-eun said that this person is a student.

* The subject marking particle -이 after 이 사람 is omitted here in order not to repeat ‘-이’ and to sound more natural. 했어요 is used rather than 말했어요 because 했어요 is more often used in spoken Korean.


공짜라고 하다 = to say that (something) is free of charge 

* It is not known what is free of charge without any context.


이 책이 공짜라고 하다 = to say that this book is free of charge 

* It is now known that “this book” is free of charge, but who said that this book is free of charge is still unknown. 


현우 씨가 이 책 공짜라고 했어요. 

= Hyunwoo said that this book is free of charge.



“What if I want to say ‘to say that (something/someone) is NOT + NOUN’ in Korean?”

In that case, you can use NOUN + (-이/가) 아니라고 말하다/이야기하다/대답하다.


Ex)

학생이라고 말하다 = to say that (he/she) is a student

→ 학생(이) 아니라고 말하다 = to say that (he/she) is not a student


공짜라고 하다 = to say that (something) is free of charge

→ 공짜(가) 아니라고 말하다 = to say that (something) is not free of charge


Sample sentences

이거라고 했어요.

= He/She/They said that it was this.


한국 사람이라고 했어요.

= He/She/They said that he/she was a Korean person.


뭐라고 말했어요?

= What did you say?

= What did you tell them?

= 뭐라고 했어요?


선생님이 뭐라고 했어요?

= What did the teacher say?


제가 일등이라고 들었어요.

= I heard that I was the first place winner.


여기가 TTMIK 사무실이라고 해요.

= They say that this is the Talk To Me In Korean office.


저는 ‘(person’s name)’(이)라고 해요.

= My name is (person’s name).

= They call me (person’s name). 


현우 씨가 여기 녹음실 아니라고 했어요. 

= Hyunwoo said that this is not a recording room.


경은 씨가 이거 선물 아니라고 했어요.

= Kyeong-eun said that this is not a present.

* This is a part of a series of lessons about -라고, -라는, -다고, and -다는. The other expressions will be introduced in the future lessons. Stay tuned!

안녕하세요. Have you ever intruduced yourself in Korean? There are a lot of different ways to introduce yourself in Korean and one of them is “저는 _(name)_ (이)라고 해요.”
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