Almost did / -(으)ㄹ 뻔했다, 할 뻔했다
-시- (honorific) / -시-, 하시다
Good work / 수고
I guess, I assume / -나 보다
I guess, I assume – Part 2 / -(으)ㄴ가 보다
Word builder 6 / 문(文)
As soon as… / -자마자, 하자마자
It is about to …, I am planning to … / -(으)려고 하다, 하려고 하다
While I was doing, and then / -다가, 하다가
(To say) that S + be / -(이)라고 + nouns
Sentence Building Drill #3
Noun + -(이)라는 + Noun / Someone that is called ABC / Someone who says s/he is XYZ
Word Builder lesson 7 / 회 (會)
Since, Because, As / -(으)니까
At least, Instead, It might not be the best but… / -(이)라도
Narrative Present Tense in Korean / -(ㄴ/는)다
Quoting someone in Korean / -(ㄴ/는)다는, -(ㄴ/는)다고
Whether or not / -(으)ㄴ/는지
To tell someone to do something / Verb + -(으)라고 + Verb
Sentence Building Drill #4
Word Contractions - Part 3 (이거를 –> 이걸)
Word builder 8 / 식 (食)
It seems like … / I assume … / -(으)려나 보다
Not A But B, Don’t do THIS but do THAT / 말고, -지 말고
Compared to, Relatively / -에 비해서 -ㄴ/은/는 편이다 /
Instead of … / 대신에, -는 대신에
You know, Isn’t it, You see…, Come on… / -잖아(요)
To have no other choice but to… / -(으)ㄹ 수밖에 없다
they said that they had done …, they said that they would … / -았/었/였다고, -(으)ㄹ 거라고
Sentence Building Drill #5
Test Your Korean – Level 5 Dialogue in 100% Korean
-(ㄴ/는)다 is a great little verb ending which is used when you are talking or writing about what is happening, or “narrating” life events, just as Morgan Freeman or James Earl Jones narrate movies. What is being said is not intended for any specific audience, but rather just a general account of things.
For continuity and simplification, Talk To Me In Korean has decided to refer to -(ㄴ/는)다 as the “narrative present tense form”.
-(ㄴ/는)다 is most often used when speaking to someone who is NOT older than you AND with whom you are close or when writing in a journal or reading a novel. When -(ㄴ/는)다 is used in writing, there is no distinction between formal language (존댓말) and casual language (반말).
- Verb stems ending with a vowel + -ㄴ다
Ex) 자다 (to sleep) → 잔다
- Verb stems ending with a last consonant + -는다
Ex) 굽다 (to bake) → 굽는다
* If a verb stem ends with ㄹ, drop the ㄹ and add -ㄴ다.
Ex) 팔다 (to sell) → 파 + ㄴ다 → 판다
- Verb stem + -다
Ex) 예쁘다 → 예쁘다
* In the case of descriptive verbs, since the verb stem is what remains after removing - 다 from the verb, the narrative present tense form is actually the same as the verb’s dictionary form.
- 있다 and 없다 are conjugated in the same way as descriptive verbs; therefore, they stay the same in the narrative present tense.
Usage Type 1 (speaking and writing)
- This is ONLY used when you are speaking to someone younger than yourself.
Use -(ㄴ/는)다 when:
1. you want to show your reaction or impression when talking about a present action or situation;
(1) 이거 좋다! = This is good!
(In 반말, you would say “이거 좋아” to the other person in the plain present tense, but “이거 좋다” expression the reaction more clearly of seeing something for the first time.)
(2) 여기 강아지 있다! = There is a puppy here!
(In 반말, you would say “여기 강아지 있어!”, but “여기 강아지 있다” generally does a better job of expressing your surprise or excitement.)
(3) 저기 기차 지나간다. = Over there, there is a train passing by.
( “저기 기차 지나가” is typically used in plain 반말, but “저기 기차 지나간다” is used to show surprise or discovery of a certain fact.)
(4) 전화 온다. = The phone is ringing.
(Using 반말, you would say “전화 와”. However, because you are describing a certain situation or action AS it is happening and not directing the phrase at anyone in particular, the narrative present tense form is used.)
2. you want to talk about a present action, situation, or a regular activity.
(1) 나 먼저 간다. = I’m leaving now (before you).
(In plain 반말, you would say “나 먼저 가” or “나 먼저 갈게”, but here you are narrating your action as you are doing it. It is as if you are saying “Hey, I am leaving now, as you can see. Show a reaction right now if you are going to react.”)
(2) 그러면, 다음에는 너 초대 안 한다. = If you do that (If that’s the case), next time, I won’t invite you (and make that a rule).
( “그러면, 다음에는 너 초대 안 할게” or “그러면 다음에는 너 초대 안 할 거야” are two ways to say this in 반말 since you are talking about the future. If you want to describe it as a rule or a habit, you can say “너 초대 안 한다”.)
Usage Type 2 (writing only)
When using -(ㄴ/는)다 in writing, the distinction between formal language and casual language disappears. In fact, this is an incredibly common way of describing a series of actions and is often used in personal journals, recipes, narration scripts for documentary films, or wherever a very neutral and narrative voice is required.
(1) 경은은 오늘도 아침 8시에 일어난다. 일어나서 제일 먼저 하는 일은 핸드폰을 보는 것이다.
= In a documentary film, Kyeong-eun gets up at 8 AM as usual. The first thing she does after she gets up is check her cellphone.
(2) 이 학교에서는 500명의 학생들이 한국어를 배운다. = In this school, 500 students learn Korean.
오늘 날씨 좋다!
= The weather is good today!
전화가 안 돼요. 어? 다시 된다!
= The phone is not working. Huh? It’s working again!
저기 내 친구들 온다.
= There come my friends.
그럼 나는 여기서 기다린다?
= Then I will wait here, okay?
* By adding a question mark at the end, you can imply that you want the other person to react.
한국어를 잘하고 싶으면, 매일 공부해야 한다.
= If you want to speak Korean well, you need to study every day.
* This sentence must be in writing.