Almost did / -(으)ㄹ 뻔했다, 할 뻔했다
-시- (honorific) / -시-, 하시다
Good work / 수고
I guess, I assume / -나 보다
I guess, I assume – Part 2 / -(으)ㄴ가 보다
Word builder 6 / 문(文)
As soon as… / -자마자, 하자마자
It is about to …, I am planning to … / -(으)려고 하다, 하려고 하다
While I was doing, and then / -다가, 하다가
(To say) that S + be / -(이)라고 + nouns
Sentence Building Drill #3
Noun + -(이)라는 + Noun / Someone that is called ABC / Someone who says s/he is XYZ
Word Builder lesson 7 / 회 (會)
Since, Because, As / -(으)니까
At least, Instead, It might not be the best but… / -(이)라도
Narrative Present Tense in Korean / -(ㄴ/는)다
Quoting someone in Korean / -(ㄴ/는)다는, -(ㄴ/는)다고
Whether or not / -(으)ㄴ/는지
To tell someone to do something / Verb + -(으)라고 + Verb
Sentence Building Drill #4
Word Contractions - Part 3 (이거를 –> 이걸)
Word builder 8 / 식 (食)
It seems like … / I assume … / -(으)려나 보다
Not A But B, Don’t do THIS but do THAT / 말고, -지 말고
Compared to, Relatively / -에 비해서 -ㄴ/은/는 편이다 /
Instead of … / 대신에, -는 대신에
You know, Isn’t it, You see…, Come on… / -잖아(요)
To have no other choice but to… / -(으)ㄹ 수밖에 없다
they said that they had done …, they said that they would … / -았/었/였다고, -(으)ㄹ 거라고
Sentence Building Drill #5
Test Your Korean – Level 5 Dialogue in 100% Korean
There are certain situations in life where you may find yourself needing to use more formal or polite language. In English, this is typically accomplished by saying “Yes” rather than “yeah”, using more formal and/or academic words, or adding “ma’am” or “sir” to the sentence. In Korean, the honorific suffix -시- is used. Although this may be the first time you are being introduced to this suffix, chances are you have heard or seen this being used before. In fact, if you have ever said “안녕하세요” or even “안녕히 가세요”, you have used the honorific suffix -시-!
What is -시-?
-시- is an honorific suffix, which means it is never used on its own, and when combined with verbs, it signifies that the speaker is showing respect for the person who he/she is talking about. If the speaker wants to show respect directly to the person with whom he/she is speaking, this can be accomplished by adding -시-.
This suffix is usually used about and to older people, someone with whom you are psychologically distant, or someone who is higher in the social hierarchy. You can never use -시- when talking about yourself.
How is it used?
-시- can be used in any tense by adding -시- between the verb stem and the verb ending indicating tense.
Present tense: verb stem + -아/어/여요
Past tense: verb stem + -았/었/였어요
Future tense: verb stem + -ㄹ 거예요
Present tense: verb stem + -시- + -어요
Past tense: verb stem + -시- + -었어요
Future tense: verb stem + -시- + -ㄹ 거예요
* When the verb stem ends with a consonant, add 으 in front of 시 to conjugate it into a form that is easier to pronounce.
1. 보다 = to see
[plain] 보 + -아요 = 봐요
[honorific] 보 + -시- + -어요 = 보셔요
[plain] 보 + -았- + -어요 = 봤어요
[honorific] 보 + -시- + -었- + -어요 = 보셨어요
[plain] 보 + -ㄹ 거예요 = 볼 거예요
[honorific] 보 + -시- + ㄹ 거예요 = 보실 거예요
2. 웃다 = to laugh; to smile
[plain] 웃 + -어요 = 웃어요
[honorific] 웃 + -으시- + -어요 = 웃으셔요
[plain] 웃 + -었- + -어요 = 웃었어요
[honorific] 웃 + -으시- + -었- + -어요 = 웃으셨어요
[plain] 웃 + -을 거예요 = 웃을 거예요
[honorific] 웃 + -으시- + -ㄹ 거예요 = 웃으실 거예요
* Using the plain form is perfectly acceptable if there is no need to be honorific. The honorific form has a subtle nuance to help the speaker express respect, but it translates to the exact same meaning as the same plain form sentence.
Honorific subject marker
Do you remember what the subject marking particles are? In case you have forgotten, 이/가 show “WHO” did the action or “WHO” is the subject of the verb.
A: 누가 했어요? (Who did it?)
B: 제가 했어요. (I did it.)
In honorific sentences, the subject marking particles change to 께서. 께서 is only used after subjects who you need to be honorific toward; showing respect and lowering your “status”. If honorific verb conjugations are not used, then 께서 cannot be used. You cannot use one without the other.
Ex) A가 → A께서
Often at times, the word for the subject itself can change. For example, the word 선생님 is already in the honorific form because it contains the word “님”, but the word 친구 needs to be changed a bit. In casual conversations, adding 이 or 가 as subject markers is acceptable, but when using honorifics, some words need to change slightly.
친구가 → 친구분께서 (adding the word 분)
사장이 → 사장님께서 (adding the word 님)
현우 씨가 → 현우 님께서 (changing the word 씨 to 님)
In everyday conversation with people with whom you know well, it is possible to drop 께서 while still keeping the basic honorific form using -시-.
1. 현우 씨, 언제 오실 거예요? = Hyunwoo, when are you going to come here?
2. 선생님이 주셨어요. = My teacher gave it to me.
3. 아빠 오셨어요. = My father is here.
Irregular verbs examples
1. 듣다 = to listen
→ [honorific] 들으시다
Present tense : 들으셔요
Past tense : 들으셨어요
Future tense : 들으실 거예요
2. 팔다 = to sell
→ [honorific] 파시다
Present tense : 파셔요
Past tense : 파셨어요
Future tense : 파실 거예요
3. 먹다 = to eat
→ [honorific] 드시다
Present tense : 드셔요
Past tense : 드셨어요
Future tense : 드실 거예요
4. 마시다 = to drink
→ [honorific] 드시다 (* the same as 먹다)
Present tense : 드셔요
Past tense : 드셨어요
Future tense : 드실 거예요
Fixed expressions (noun + 하시다)
There are a couple nouns which are only used in honorific situations with 하시다 to form the utmost honorific and polite expression.
말 = talk, speech, story, speaking
→ 말씀하시다 = to talk
밥 = rice, meal
먹다 = to eat
→ 식사 = meal
→ 식사하시다 = to have a meal
-셔요 becoming -세요
According to the official way Korean is meant to be spoken and written, when -시- is combined with -아/어/여요, the present tense ending, it becomes -셔요. Over time, people started pronouncing it, and even writing it, as -세요 because it is easier to pronounce. -세요 has been recognized as a language standard for nearly 3 decades, but it is only found in present tense sentences and imperative sentences.
Ex) 어디 가셔요? → 어디 가세요?
(어디 가셔요 is still correct, but 어디 가세요 is more common.)
Ex) 하지 마셔요. → 하지 마세요.
(하지 마셔요 is still correct, but 하지 마세요 is more common.)