Almost did / -(으)ㄹ 뻔했다, 할 뻔했다
-시- (honorific) / -시-, 하시다
Good work / 수고
I guess, I assume / -나 보다
I guess, I assume – Part 2 / -(으)ㄴ가 보다
Word builder 6 / 문(文)
As soon as… / -자마자, 하자마자
It is about to …, I am planning to … / -(으)려고 하다, 하려고 하다
While I was doing, and then / -다가, 하다가
(To say) that S + be / -(이)라고 + nouns
Sentence Building Drill #3
Noun + -(이)라는 + Noun / Someone that is called ABC / Someone who says s/he is XYZ
Word Builder lesson 7 / 회 (會)
Since, Because, As / -(으)니까
At least, Instead, It might not be the best but… / -(이)라도
Narrative Present Tense in Korean / -(ㄴ/는)다
Quoting someone in Korean / -(ㄴ/는)다는, -(ㄴ/는)다고
Whether or not / -(으)ㄴ/는지
To tell someone to do something / Verb + -(으)라고 + Verb
Sentence Building Drill #4
Word Contractions - Part 3 (이거를 –> 이걸)
Word builder 8 / 식 (食)
It seems like … / I assume … / -(으)려나 보다
Not A But B, Don’t do THIS but do THAT / 말고, -지 말고
Compared to, Relatively / -에 비해서 -ㄴ/은/는 편이다 /
Instead of … / 대신에, -는 대신에
You know, Isn’t it, You see…, Come on… / -잖아(요)
To have no other choice but to… / -(으)ㄹ 수밖에 없다
they said that they had done …, they said that they would … / -았/었/였다고, -(으)ㄹ 거라고
Sentence Building Drill #5
Test Your Korean – Level 5 Dialogue in 100% Korean
Let’s continue learning how to use -나 보다 to make your Korean more fluent!
You already learned that you can use -나 보다 for action verbs (turn back one lesson if you’ve forgotten!)
하다 → 하나 보다 (I guess they do ...)
오다 → 오나 보다 (I guess they come …)
By slightly modifying -나 보다 to -(으)ㄴ가 보다, you can use this sentence structure with adjectives.
예쁘다 → 예쁜가 보다 (I guess it’s pretty …)
비싸다 → 비싼가 보다 (I guess it’s expensive …)
작다 → 작은가 보다 (I guess it’s small …)
For -이다 (to be):
-이다 changes to -인가 보다
* Note that since -이다 is not an adjective on its own, it is usually combined with nouns to make a statement; however, in this case, -이다 is followed by -(으)ㄴ가 보다.
Verb stems ending with a vowel + -ㄴ가 보다
Ex) 크다 → 크 + -ㄴ가 보다 = 큰가 보다
Verb stems ending with a consonant + -은가 보다
Ex) 작다 → 작 + -은가 보다 = 작은가 보다
Commonly accepted exceptions and irregularities
Even though the rule is that action verbs are followed by -나 보다 and adjectives are followed by -(으)ㄴ가 보다, Korean speakers often use -나 보다 with adjectives when the stem ends with a consonant. It does not, however, work the other way around: you absolutely cannot use -(으)ㄴ가 보다 with action verbs.
작다 = to be small
Since 작다 is an adjective, it is to be followed by -(으)ㄴ가 보다.
작은가 보다 = I guess it’s small.
However, due to the accepted irregularity to this rule, speakers often say 작나 보다 with the same intended meaning as 작은가 보다.
맵다 = to be spicy
→ 매운가 보다 or 맵나 보다
Present tense and past tense conjugations
[present tense 존댓말]
-(으)ㄴ가 보다 → -(으)ㄴ가 봐요
[past tense 존댓말]
For past tense, you would simply add the suffix -았/었/였 to the stem of the adjective. After that, for ease of pronunciation and so people know what you’re talking about, use -나 봐요 after -았/었/였.
Although the stem of an adjective is followed by -(으)ㄴ가 봐요 in the present tense, it is always followed by -았/었/였나 봐요 in the past tense. For example,
아프다 = to be sick
→ [present tense] 아프 + -(으)ㄴ가 봐요 = 아픈가 봐요
→ [past tense] 아프 + -았/었/였나 봐요 = 아팠나 봐요
When the adjective is composed of a noun and the verb 있다 or 없다 to create an adjective, i.e. 재미있다, 맛있다, 재미없다, or 맛없다, you need to add -나 봐요 after 있 or 없.
재미있다 → 재미있나 봐요 / 재미있었나 봐요
맛없다 → 맛없나 봐요 / 맛없었나 봐요
학생이 많아요. = There are a lot of students.
→ 학생이 많은가 봐요. = I guess there are a lot of students.
→ 학생이 많았나 봐요. = I guess there were a lot of students.
요즘 바빠요. = He’s busy these days.
→ 요즘 바쁜가 봐요. = I guess he’s busy these days.
→ 바빴나 봐요. = I guess he was busy.
아이들이 졸려요. = The kids are sleepy.
→ 아이들이 졸린가 봐요. = I guess the kids are sleepy.
그래요. = It is so./ That’s right.
→ 그런가 봐요. = I guess so.
이쪽이 더 빨라요. = This way is faster.
→ 이쪽이 더 빠른가 봐요. = I guess this way is faster.