Level 5 Korean Grammar

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1

Almost did / -(으)ㄹ 뻔했다, 할 뻔했다

2

-시- (honorific) / -시-, 하시다

3

Good work / 수고

4

I guess, I assume / -나 보다

5

I guess, I assume – Part 2 / -(으)ㄴ가 보다

6

Word builder 6 / 문(文)

7

As soon as… / -자마자, 하자마자

8

It is about to …, I am planning to … / -(으)려고 하다, 하려고 하다

9

While I was doing, and then / -다가, 하다가

10

(To say) that S + be / -(이)라고 + nouns

11

Sentence Building Drill #3

12

Noun + -(이)라는 + Noun / Someone that is called ABC / Someone who says s/he is XYZ

13

Word Builder lesson 7 / 회 (會)

14

Since, Because, As / -(으)니까

15

At least, Instead, It might not be the best but… / -(이)라도

16

Narrative Present Tense in Korean / -(ㄴ/는)다

17

Quoting someone in Korean / -(ㄴ/는)다는, -(ㄴ/는)다고

18

Whether or not / -(으)ㄴ/는지

19

To tell someone to do something / Verb + -(으)라고 + Verb

20

Sentence Building Drill #4

21

Word Contractions - Part 3 (이거를 –> 이걸)

22

Word builder 8 / 식 (食)

23

It seems like … / I assume … / -(으)려나 보다

24

Not A But B, Don’t do THIS but do THAT / 말고, -지 말고

25

Compared to, Relatively / -에 비해서 -ㄴ/은/는 편이다 /

26

Instead of … / 대신에, -는 대신에

27

You know, Isn’t it, You see…, Come on… / -잖아(요)

28

To have no other choice but to… / -(으)ㄹ 수밖에 없다

29

they said that they had done …, they said that they would … / -았/었/였다고, -(으)ㄹ 거라고

30

Sentence Building Drill #5

31

Test Your Korean – Level 5 Dialogue in 100% Korean

I guess, I assume – Part 2 / -(으)ㄴ가 보다

안녕하세요! In the previous lesson, we looked at the structure -나 보다 [-na bo-da], which can be used with action verbs to mean “I guess …” or “I assume …”. In this lesson, we are going to look at how to say the same thing but with descriptive verbs : -(으)ㄴ가 보다.

Let’s continue learning how to use -나 보다 to make your Korean more fluent! 

You already learned that you can use -나 보다 for action verbs (turn back one lesson if you’ve forgotten!) 


Ex)

하다 → 하나 보다 (I guess they do ...)

오다 → 오나 보다 (I guess they come …)


By slightly modifying -나 보다 to -(으)ㄴ가 보다, you can use this sentence structure with adjectives. 


Ex)

예쁘다 → 예쁜가 보다 (I guess it’s pretty …)

비싸다 → 비싼가 보다 (I guess it’s expensive …)

작다 → 작은가 보다 (I guess it’s small …)


For -이다 (to be):

-이다 changes to -인가 보다

* Note that since -이다 is not an adjective on its own, it is usually combined with nouns to make a statement; however, in this case, -이다 is followed by -(으)ㄴ가 보다.


Conjugation:

Verb stems ending with a vowel + -ㄴ가 보다

Ex) 크다 → 크 + -ㄴ가 보다 = 큰가 보다


Verb stems ending with a consonant + -은가 보다 

Ex) 작다 → 작 + -은가 보다 = 작은가 보다


Commonly accepted exceptions and irregularities

Even though the rule is that action verbs are followed by -나 보다 and adjectives are followed by -(으)ㄴ가 보다, Korean speakers often use -나 보다 with adjectives when the stem ends with a consonant. It does not, however, work the other way around: you  absolutely cannot use -(으)ㄴ가 보다 with action verbs. 


Ex)

작다 = to be small


Since 작다 is an adjective, it is to be followed by -(으)ㄴ가 보다. 


작은가 보다 = I guess it’s small.


However, due to the accepted irregularity to this rule, speakers often say 작나 보다 with the same intended meaning as 작은가 보다. 


Ex)

맵다 = to be spicy

→ 매운가 보다 or 맵나 보다


Present tense and past tense conjugations

[present tense 존댓말]

-(으)ㄴ가 보다 → -(으)ㄴ가 봐요


[past tense 존댓말]

For past tense, you would simply add the suffix -았/었/였 to the stem of the adjective. After that, for ease of pronunciation and so people know what you’re talking about, use -나 봐요 after -았/었/였. 


Although the stem of an adjective is followed by -(으)ㄴ가 봐요 in the present tense, it is always followed by -았/었/였나 봐요 in the past tense. For example, 


아프다 = to be sick

→ [present tense] 아프 + -(으)ㄴ가 봐요 = 아픈가 봐요

→ [past tense] 아프 + -았/었/였나 봐요 = 아팠나 봐요


Exceptions

When the adjective is composed of a noun and the verb 있다 or 없다 to create an adjective, i.e. 재미있다, 맛있다, 재미없다, or 맛없다, you need to add -나 봐요 after 있 or 없.


재미있다 → 재미있나 봐요 / 재미있었나 봐요

맛없다 → 맛없나 봐요 / 맛없었나 봐요


Sample Sentences

학생이 많아요. = There are a lot of students.

→ 학생이 많은가 봐요. = I guess there are a lot of students.

→ 학생이 많았나 봐요. = I guess there were a lot of students.


요즘 바빠요. = He’s busy these days.

→ 요즘 바쁜가 봐요. = I guess he’s busy these days.

→ 바빴나 봐요. = I guess he was busy.


아이들이 졸려요. = The kids are sleepy.

→ 아이들이 졸린가 봐요. = I guess the kids are sleepy.


그래요. = It is so./ That’s right.

→ 그런가 봐요. = I guess so.


이쪽이 더 빨라요. = This way is faster.

→ 이쪽이 더 빠른가 봐요. = I guess this way is faster.

안녕하세요! In the previous lesson, we looked at the structure -나 보다 [-na bo-da], which can be used with action verbs to mean “I guess …” or “I assume …”. In this lesson, we are going to look at how to say the same thing but with descriptive verbs : -(으)ㄴ가 보다.
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