Level 5 Korean Grammar

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1

Almost did / -(으)ㄹ 뻔했다, 할 뻔했다

2

-시- (honorific) / -시-, 하시다

3

Good work / 수고

4

I guess, I assume / -나 보다

5

I guess, I assume – Part 2 / -(으)ㄴ가 보다

6

Word builder 6 / 문(文)

7

As soon as… / -자마자, 하자마자

8

It is about to …, I am planning to … / -(으)려고 하다, 하려고 하다

9

While I was doing, and then / -다가, 하다가

10

(To say) that S + be / -(이)라고 + nouns

11

Sentence Building Drill #3

12

Noun + -(이)라는 + Noun / Someone that is called ABC / Someone who says s/he is XYZ

13

Word Builder lesson 7 / 회 (會)

14

Since, Because, As / -(으)니까

15

At least, Instead, It might not be the best but… / -(이)라도

16

Narrative Present Tense in Korean / -(ㄴ/는)다

17

Quoting someone in Korean / -(ㄴ/는)다는, -(ㄴ/는)다고

18

Whether or not / -(으)ㄴ/는지

19

To tell someone to do something / Verb + -(으)라고 + Verb

20

Sentence Building Drill #4

21

Word Contractions - Part 3 (이거를 –> 이걸)

22

Word builder 8 / 식 (食)

23

It seems like … / I assume … / -(으)려나 보다

24

Not A But B, Don’t do THIS but do THAT / 말고, -지 말고

25

Compared to, Relatively / -에 비해서 -ㄴ/은/는 편이다 /

26

Instead of … / 대신에, -는 대신에

27

You know, Isn’t it, You see…, Come on… / -잖아(요)

28

To have no other choice but to… / -(으)ㄹ 수밖에 없다

29

they said that they had done …, they said that they would … / -았/었/였다고, -(으)ㄹ 거라고

30

Sentence Building Drill #5

31

Test Your Korean – Level 5 Dialogue in 100% Korean

It is about to …, I am planning to … / -(으)려고 하다, 하려고 하다

In this lesson, we are going to look at another way of talking about a future action or state ; -(으)려고 하다 It might seem like there are just way more types of future tenses in Korean than necessary, but they all serve their specific purpose, so they will all come in handy when you need to say certain things in some specific situations.

Back in Level 2, Lesson 1, you learned how to make standard future tense sentences using -(으)ㄹ 거예요. In Level 3, Lesson 6, you learned how to use -(으)ㄹ게요 to look or ask for a reaction or feedback on what you are thinking of doing. In Level 4, Lesson 2, you learned how to express the strong intention to do something or ask someone else’s intention by using -(으)ㄹ래요. 


Take a moment to review: 

*하다 = to do

1. 할 거예요 = I’m going to do; I will do (plain future tense)

2. 할게요 = I’m going to do … what do you think? (looking for the other person’s reaction)

3. 할래요 = I want to do; I’m going to do (showing determined intention)


**Important**

It may seem as if there are too many types of future tense endings in Korean, but each has its own specific purpose and WILL come in handy when you need to say things in specific situations. English also has a variety of future tense forms, such as “I will”, “I am going to…”, “I am thinking of…”, “I am going to be…”, etc. 


Surely by now you can you guess what we are introducing in this lesson. That’s right! Yet another future tense ending! The ending -(으)려고 하다 expresses the intention or will to do/want/try something or the state of something in the very near future.  


Conjugation is simple

가 + -려고 하다 = 가려고 하다

먹 + -으려고 하다 = 먹으려고 하다

잡 + -으려고 하다 = 잡으려고 하다

하 + -려고 하다 = 하려고 하다


Usage 1) - showing intention for action

사다 = to buy

사려고 하다 = to be about to buy; to be intending on buying; to be planning to buy


[past tense]

사려고 했어요 = I was going to buy it.


[noun group]

사려고 하는 사람 = someone who is planning to buy it


[present tense + -는데]

사려고 하는데 = I am thinking of buying it, and/but....


For expressing intention to do something, -려고 하다 is not commonly used in the plain present tense (-려고 해요) in colloquial Korean. Therefore, if you say “사려고 해요,” it might sound very textbook-like and formal. You can, however, use it in very formal situations.


Usage 2) - talking about a state of the near future

떨어지다 = to drop; to fall

떨어지려고 하다 = to be about to drop, to be going to drop


Ex)

비가 오려고 해요. = It looks like it’s going to rain.


How is this compared to the plain future tense?

비가 올 거예요. = It is going to rain. (This is a fact.)

비가 오려고 해요. = It is about to rain (based on your own supposition or what you see)

* When using -(으)려고 하다 to talk about the state of something or an event which is going to happen, it is usually based on your own assumptions or judgements. 


Sample Sentences

어제 친구 만나려고 했는데, 못 만났어요.

= I wanted to meet a friend yesterday, but I could not meet her.

= I was going to meet a friend yesterday, but I couldn’t meet her.

= I was planning to meet a friend yesterday, but I couldn’t meet her.

* -(으)려고 했는데 is very useful for expressing your past plan for the future, which could be past or present already when using this form.


외국에서 공부하려고 하는 학생들이 많아요.

= There are many students who want to study abroad.

= There are many students who are planning to study abroad.

* Here, you could also say "외국에서 공부할 거예요," but you cannot say "외국에서 공부할 거예요" plus 학생. Using “-(으)려고 하다” makes it easier to create noun groups more so than “-(으)ㄹ 것이다.”


카메라 사려고 하는데, 뭐가 좋아요?

= I’m planning to buy a camera. Which one is good?

* “카메라 살 건데, 뭐가 좋아요?” would mean the same in most cases, but here, you are showing more of your intention.


친구가 울려고 해요.

= My friend is going to cry.

= My friend is about to cry.

* It seems as though this sentence is talking about an action, “to cry,”  but it is really expressing the state of your friend. Although he/she is about to cry, he/she is clearly not planning to cry. Judging from the looks of her or him, you assume that your friend is going to cry.


친구가 이사하려고 해요.

= My friend is planning to move.

= My friend is going to move. (= 친구가 이사할 거예요.)

= My friend wants to move.

* “이사하려고 해요” can be regarded as an action or state.


아이스크림이 녹으려고 해요.

= The ice cream is about to melt. 

* If you want to say that you know for a fact the ice cream will melt, if you wait for 10 minutes without eating it, you can say “녹을 거예요”.

In this lesson, we are going to look at another way of talking about a future action or state ; -(으)려고 하다 It might seem like there are just way more types of future tenses in Korean than necessary, but they all serve their specific purpose, so they will all come in handy when you need to say certain things in some specific situations.
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